1863 events in history

Jan 1 The first claim under the Homestead Act is made by Daniel Freeman for a farm in Nebraska
Jan 1 American Civil War: The Emancipation Proclamation takes effect in Confederate territory
Jan 4 The New Apostolic Church, a Christian and chiliastic church, is established in Hamburg, Germany
Jan 8 American Civil War: Second Battle of Springfield
Jan 9 American Civil War: the Battle of Fort Hindman begins in Arkansas
Jan 10 The London Underground, the world's oldest underground railway, opens between London Paddington station and Farringdon station
Jan 11 American Civil War: CSS Alabama encounters and sinks the USS Hatteras off Galveston Lighthouse in Texas
Jan 11 American Civil War: Battle of Arkansas Post – General John McClernand and Admiral David Dixon Porter capture the Arkansas River for the Union
Jan 22 The January Uprising breaks out in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. The aim of the national movement is to regain Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth from occupation by Russia
Jan 26 American Civil War: General Ambrose Burnside is relieved of command of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Fredericksburg campaign. He is replaced by Joseph Hooker
Jan 26 American Civil War: Governor of Massachusetts John Albion Andrew receives permission from Secretary of War to raise a militia organization for men of African descent
Jan 29 Bear River Massacre
Feb 7 HMS Orpheus sinks off the coast of Auckland, New Zealand, killing 189
Feb 17 A group of citizens of Geneva founded an International Committee for Relief to the Wounded, which later became known as the International Committee of the Red Cross
Feb 24 Arizona is organized as a United States territory
Mar 19 The SS Georgiana, said to have been the most powerful Confederate cruiser, is destroyed on her maiden voyage with a cargo of munitions, medicines and merchandise then valued at over $1,000,000
Mar 30 Danish prince Wilhelm Georg is chosen as King George of Greece
Apr 2 Richmond Bread Riot: Food shortages incite hundreds of angry women to riot in Richmond, Virginia, and demand that the Confederate government release emergency supplies
Apr 16 American Civil War: Siege of Vicksburg – ships led by Union Admiral David Dixon Porter move through heavy Confederate artillery fire on approach to Vicksburg, Mississippi
Apr 17 American Civil War: Grierson's Raid begins – troops under Union Army Colonel Benjamin Grierson attack central Mississippi
Apr 21 Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, declares his mission as "He whom God shall make manifest"
Apr 30 A 65-man French Foreign Legion infantry patrol fights a force of nearly 2,000 Mexican soldiers to nearly the last man in Hacienda Camarón, Mexico
May 1 American Civil War: The Battle of Chancellorsville begins
May 2 American Civil War: Stonewall Jackson is wounded by friendly fire while returning to camp after reconnoitering during the Battle of Chancellorsville. He succumbs to pneumonia eight days later
May 6 American Civil War: The Battle of Chancellorsville ends with the defeat of the Army of the Potomac by Confederate troops
May 10 American Civil War: Confederate General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson dies eight days after he is accidentally shot by his own troops
May 12 American Civil War: Battle of Raymond: Two divisions of James B. McPherson's XVII Corps (ACW) turn the left wing of Confederate General John C. Pemberton's defensive line on Fourteen Mile Creek, opening up the interior of Mississippi to the Union Army during the Vicksburg Campaign
May 14 American Civil War: The Battle of Jackson takes place
May 17 Rosalía de Castro publishes Cantares Gallegos, the first book in the Galician language
May 18 American Civil War: The Siege of Vicksburg begins
May 21 American Civil War: The Union Army succeeds in closing off the last escape route from Port Hudson, Louisiana, in preparation for the coming siege
May 21 Organization of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Battle Creek, Michigan
May 22 American Civil War: Siege of Port Hudson – Union forces begin to lay siege to the Confederate-controlled Port Hudson, Louisiana
May 27 American Civil War: First Assault on the Confederate works at the Siege of Port Hudson
Jun 7 During the French intervention in Mexico, Mexico City is captured by French troops
Jun 9 American Civil War: Battle of Brandy Station, Virginia
Jun 14 Second Assault on the Confederate works at the Siege of Port Hudson during the American Civil War
Jun 14 American Civil War: Second Battle of Winchester – a Union garrison is defeated by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Shenandoah Valley town of Winchester, Virginia
Jun 17 American Civil War: Battle of Aldie in the Gettysburg Campaign
Jun 20 American Civil War: West Virginia is admitted as the 35th U.S. state
Jul 1 American Civil War: The Battle of Gettysburg begins
Jul 1 Keti Koti (Emancipation Day) in Suriname, marking the abolition of slavery by the Netherlands
Jul 3 American Civil War: The final day of the Battle of Gettysburg culminates with Pickett's Charge
Jul 4 American Civil War: Siege of Vicksburg: Vicksburg, Mississippi surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant after 47 days of siege. One hundred fifty miles up the Mississippi River, a Confederate Army was repulsed at the Battle of Helena, Arkansas
Jul 4 American Civil War: The Army of Northern Virginia withdrew from the battlefield after losing the Battle of Gettysburg, signalling an end to the Southern invasion of the North
Jul 7 United States begins its first military draft; exemptions cost $300
Jul 9 American Civil War: The Siege of Port Hudson ends
Jul 13 New York City draft riots: In New York, New York, opponents of conscription begin three days of rioting which will be later regarded as the worst in United States history
Jul 18 American Civil War: Second Battle of Fort Wagner – one of the first formal African American military units, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, supported by several white regiments, attempts an unsuccessful assault on Confederate-held Battery Wagner
Jul 19 American Civil War: Morgan's Raid – At Buffington Island in Ohio, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan's raid into the north is mostly thwarted when a large group of his men are captured while trying to escape across the Ohio River