Died in 1865

Jan 7 Julius Roger a German medical doctor, entomologist and folklorist who worked in Ratibor, in Upper Silesia, most notable for having arranged to build hospitals in Groß Rauden, Pilchowitz, plus the current public hospital in Rybnik.
Jan 8 Aimé duc de Clermont-Tonnerre a French general and statesman.
Jan 8 John Dobson (architect) a 19th-century English architect in the neoclassical tradition. He became the most noted architect in the North of England. Churches and houses by him dot the North East - Nunnykirk Hall, Meldon Park, Mitford Hall, Lilburn Tower, St John the Baptist Church in Otterburn, Northumberland, and Beaufront Castle among them. During his career he designed more than 50 churches and 100 private houses. However, he is best known for designing Newcastle Central Station and for his work with Richard Grainger developing the centre of Newcastle in a neoclassical style
Jan 12 Kunisada the most popular, prolific and financially successful designer of ukiyo-e woodblock prints in 19th-century Japan. In his own time, his reputation far exceeded that of his contemporaries, Hokusai, Hiroshige and Kuniyoshi
Jan 12 Karl Ullmann a German Calvinist theologian from the Electoral Palatinate.
Jan 14 Marie-Anne Libert a Belgian botanist and mycologist. She was one of the first women plant pathologists. She is sometimes referred to as "Anne-Marie Libert"
Jan 15 Edward Everett an American politician, pastor, educator, diplomat, and orator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State. He also taught at Harvard University and served as its president
Jan 18 James Beaumont Neilson a Scottish inventor whose hot-blast process greatly increased the efficiency of smelting iron.
Jan 19 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon a French politician, the founder of Mutualist philosophy, an economist and a socialist. He was the first person to declare himself an anarchist and is among its most influential theorists. He is considered by many to be the "father of anarchism". He became a member of the French Parliament after the revolution of 1848, whereafter he referred to himself as a federalist
Jan 21 X. B. Saintine a French dramatist and novelist. He was born Joseph Xavier Boniface in Paris in 1798. In 1823, he produced a volume of poetry in the manner of the Romanticists, entitled Poèmes, odes, épîtres. In 1836 appeared Picciola, a novel about the comte de Charney, a political prisoner in Piedmont, whose reason was saved by his cultivation of a tiny flower growing between the paving stones of his prison yard. This story is a masterpiece of the sentimental kind, and has been translated into many European languages. The novel earned him renown and came to be regarded as a classic of French literature
Jan 21 Alecu Donici a Moldavian-born Romanian poet and translator.
Jan 23 Arseny Zakrevsky a Russian statesman and Minister of the Interior from April 19 of 1828 to November 19 of 1831.
Jan 24 Stephen Allen Benson served as the 2nd President of Liberia from 1856 to 1864. Prior to that, he served as the 3rd Vice President of Liberia from 1854 to 1856 under President Joseph Jenkins Roberts
Jan 28 Felice Romani an Italian poet and scholar of literature and mythology who wrote many librettos for the opera composers Donizetti and Bellini. Romani was considered the finest Italian librettist between Metastasio and Boito
Jan 31 Hugh Falconer a Scottish geologist, botanist, palaeontologist, and paleoanthropologist. He studied the flora, fauna, and geology of India, Assam, and Burma, and was the first to suggest the modern evolutionary theory of punctuated equilibrium. He was the first to discover the Siwalik fossil beds, and may also have been the first person to discover a fossil ape
Feb 6 John Pegram (general) a career soldier from Virginia who served as an officer in the United States Army and then as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. He became the first former U.S. Army officer to be captured in Confederate service in 1861 and was killed in action near the end of the war
Feb 9 Levi Hill an American minister in upstate New York who claimed in 1851 that he had invented a color photographic process. Borrowing terms previously introduced in France, Hill called his process "heliochromy" and the photographs that it produced "heliochromes", but by analogy to the naming of the then-current daguerreotype process after its inventor Louis Daguerre, Hill's color photographs were soon being called "Hillotypes". Hill's work was met with skepticism during his lifetime, then for more than a hundred years after his death histories of photography routinely dismissed it as a complete fraud. Later researchers found that his very difficult process did in fact have a limited ability to reproduce the colors of nature
Feb 10 Heinrich Lenz a Russian physicist of Baltic German ethnicity. He is most noted for formulating Lenz's law in electrodynamics in 1833. The symbol , conventionally representing inductance, is chosen in his honor
Feb 15 Nicholas Wiseman a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who became the first Archbishop of Westminster upon the re-establishment of the Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales in 1850.
Feb 16 Louis Pierre Gratiolet a French anatomist and zoologist who was a native of Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Gironde. He succeeded Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as professor of zoology to the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Paris
Feb 17 George Phillips Bond an American astronomer. He was the son of William Cranch Bond. Some sources give his year of birth as 1826
Feb 20 Tomás Villalba a Uruguayan politician who served as interim President for five days , at the end of the Uruguayan War, which had begun on 10 August 1864. The war was fought between the governing Blanco Party and the Colorado Party, with the latter supported openly by the Empire of Brazil and covertly by the Argentine president, Bartolomé Mitre. The Uruguayan War was part an almost continuous struggle between the Blanco and Colorado factions since Uruguayan independence in 1828, and was closely linked to a wider regional conflict involving Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay which culminated in the Paraguayan War. The Colorado leader Venancio Flores started a rebellion in 1863 to overthrow Blanco President Bernardo Berro, who led a coalition Colorado–Blanco government. After a series of battles, the Colorados and the Brazilian army controlled most of the country, with the Blancos left in control of just the capital, Montevideo.:235 On March 1, 1864, President Berro stepped down and was replaced by a hard-line senator, Atanasio Aguirre
Feb 21 Constant Troyon born in Sèvres, near Paris, where his father was connected with the famous manufactory of porcelain.
Feb 21 Stapleton Cotton 1st Viscount Combermere a British Army officer, diplomat and politician. As a junior officer he took part in the Flanders Campaign, in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and in the suppression of Robert Emmet's insurrection in 1803. He commanded a cavalry brigade in Sir Arthur Wellesley's Army before being given overall command of the cavalry in the latter stages of the Peninsular War. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief, Ireland and then Commander-in-Chief, India. In the latter role he stormed Bharatpur—a fort which previously had been deemed impregnable
Feb 25 Otto Ludwig (writer) a German dramatist, novelist and critic born in Eisfeld in Thuringia. He was one of Germany's first modern realists and one of the most notable dramatists of the period
Mar 1 Anna Pavlovna of Russia a queen consort of the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, due to nineteenth century Dutch transliteration conventions, she is better known as Anna Paulowna
Mar 5 Heinrich Wilhelm Schott an Austrian botanist well known for his extensive work on aroids.
Mar 10 Charles de Morny Duke of Morny a French statesman. He was the natural son of Hortense de Beauharnais and Charles Joseph, Comte de Flahaut, and therefore half-brother of Emperor Napoleon III
Mar 11 Robert Hermann Schomburgk a German-born explorer for Great Britain who carried out geographical, ethnological and botanical studies in South America and the West Indies, and also fulfilled diplomatic missions for Great Britain in the Dominican Republic and Thailand.
Mar 13 Eduard von Bonin a Prussian general officer who served as Prussian Minister of War from 1852–54 and 1858-59.
Mar 18 Friedrich August Stüler an influential Prussian architect and builder. His masterpiece is the Neues Museum in Berlin, as well as the dome of the triumphal arch of the main portal of the Berliner Stadtschloss
Mar 19 Joseph Lebeau a Belgian liberal politician and statesman, the second Prime Minister.
Mar 20 Yamanami Keisuke a Japanese samurai. He was the General Secretary of the Shinsengumi, a special police force in Kyoto during the late Edo period
Mar 22 Gerhardt Wilhelm von Reutern a Baltic-German military officer and painter who co-founded the Artists' Colony at Willingshausen.
Mar 23 Manuel Isidoro Belzu president of Bolivia from 1848 to 1855.
Mar 28 Petrus Hofman Peerlkamp a Dutch classical scholar and critic, descended from a family of French refugees named Perlechamp, was born at Groningen.
Mar 30 Alexander Dukhnovich a priest, poet, writer, pedagogue, and social activist of the Slavic peoples of the Carpathians. He is considered as the awakener of the Rusyns
Apr 1 Giuditta Pasta an Italian soprano considered among the greatest of opera singers, to whom the 20th-century soprano Maria Callas was compared.
Apr 2 A. P. Hill a career U.S. Army officer in the Mexican–American War and Seminole Wars and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He gained early fame as the commander of the "Light Division" in the Seven Days Battles and became one of Stonewall Jackson's ablest subordinates, distinguishing himself in the 1862 battles of Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg
Apr 2 Richard Cobden an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.
Apr 7 Carl Dahl a Danish marine painter during the Golden Age of Danish Painting.
Apr 10 William H.C. Whiting an United States Army officer who resigned after 16 years of service in the Army Corps of Engineers to serve in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He was wounded at the Second Battle of Fort Fisher by a musket ball to his leg, and died in prison camp on March 10, 1865 of dysentery that entered his wounds
Apr 10 Shoqan Walikhanov a Kazakh scholar, ethnographer, historian and participant of The Great Game. He is regarded as the father of modern Kazakh historiography and ethnography. The Kazakh Academy of Sciences is named after him. His name is written Shoqan Walikhanov in English based on the transliteration of the Russian spelling of his name, which he used himself. The Kazakh language variant of his name was written in the Arabic script, and was similar to the Russian version
Apr 13 Amanz Gressly a Swiss geologist and paleontologist. He introduced the use of the term facies in geology, he is considered one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and paleoecology
Apr 13 Achille Valenciennes a French zoologist.
Apr 14 Rafael Carrera the president of Guatemala from 1844 to 1848 and from 1851 until his death in 1865. During his military career and presidency, the new nations in Central America faced numerous problems. This led to a rise of caudillos, a term that refers to charismatic populist leaders among the indigenous people. Many regional and national caudillos were interested in power for their own gain. Carrera was an exception as he genuinely took the interests of Guatemala's Indian majority to heart
Apr 15 Abraham Lincoln the 16th president of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional and political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy
Apr 16 Princess Anna of Hesse and by Rhine the consort and second wife of Friedrich Franz II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Apr 18 Léon Jean Marie Dufour a French medical doctor and naturalist.
Apr 21 Josef Matěj Navrátil a Czech painter.