1865 events in history

Jan 2 Uruguayan War: The Siege of Paysandú ends as Brazilian and Coloradans capture Paysandú, Uruguay
Jan 4 The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York, New York
Jan 15 American Civil War: Fort Fisher in North Carolina falls to the Union, thus cutting off the last major seaport of the Confederacy
Jan 31 American Civil War: The United States Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, abolishing slavery and submits it to the states for ratification
Jan 31 American Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee becomes general-in-chief
Feb 1 President Abraham Lincoln signs the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Feb 8 In the United States, Delaware voters reject the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and vote to continue the practice of slavery. (Delaware finally ratifies the amendment on February 12, 1901.)
Feb 17 American Civil War: Columbia, South Carolina, is burned as Confederate forces flee from advancing Union forces
Feb 18 American Civil War: Union forces under Major General William T. Sherman set the South Carolina State House on fire during the burning of Columbia
Feb 20 End of the Uruguayan War, with a peace agreement between President Tomás Villalba and rebel leader Venancio Flores, setting the scene for the destructive War of the Triple Alliance
Mar 2 East Cape War: The Volkner Incident in New Zealand
Mar 3 Opening of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the founding member of the HSBC Group
Mar 4 The third and final national flag of the Confederate States of America is adopted by the Confederate Congress
Mar 13 American Civil War: The Confederate States of America agree to the use of African American troops
Mar 16 American Civil War: The Battle of Averasborough began as Confederate forces suffer irreplaceable casualties in the final months of the war
Mar 18 American Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States adjourns for the last time
Mar 19 American Civil War: The Battle of Bentonville begins. By the end of the battle two days later, Confederate forces had retreated from Four Oaks, North Carolina
Mar 25 American Civil War: In Virginia, Confederate forces temporarily capture Fort Stedman from the Union
Mar 29 American Civil War: Federal forces under Major General Philip Sheridan move to flank Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee as the Appomattox Campaign begins
Apr 1 American Civil War: Battle of Five Forks
Apr 2 American Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis and most of his Cabinet flee the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia
Apr 2 American Civil War: The Siege of Petersburg is broken – Union troops capture the trenches around Petersburg, Virginia, forcing Confederate General Robert E. Lee to retreat
Apr 3 American Civil War: Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America
Apr 4 American Civil War: A day after Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln visits the Confederate capital
Apr 6 American Civil War: The Battle of Sayler's Creek – Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fights its last major battle while in retreat from Richmond, Virginia
Apr 9 American Civil War: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, effectively ending the war
Apr 10 American Civil War: A day after his surrender to Union forces, Confederate General Robert E. Lee addresses his troops for the last time
Apr 12 American Civil War: Mobile, Alabama, falls to the Union Army
Apr 14 U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell
Apr 14 U.S. President Abraham Lincoln is shot in Ford's Theatre by John Wilkes Booth (died April 15th)
Apr 15 Abraham Lincoln dies after being shot the previous evening by actor John Wilkes Booth
Apr 20 Astronomer Pietro Angelo Secchi demonstrates the Secchi disk, which measures water clarity, aboard Pope Pius IX's yacht, the L'Immaculata Concezion
Apr 26 American Civil War: Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston surrenders his army to General William Tecumseh Sherman at the Bennett Place near Durham, North Carolina. Also the date of Confederate Memorial Day for two states
Apr 26 Union cavalry troopers corner and shoot dead John Wilkes Booth, assassin of President Lincoln, in Virginia
Apr 27 The New York State Senate creates Cornell University as the state's land grant institution
Apr 27 The steamboat SS Sultana, carrying 2,400 passengers, explodes and sinks in the Mississippi River, killing 1,700, most of whom are Union survivors of the Andersonville and Cahaba Prisons
May 1 The Empire of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay sign the Treaty of the Triple Alliance
May 5 In North Bend, Ohio (a suburb of Cincinnati), the first train robbery in the United States takes place
May 10 American Civil War: In Kentucky, Union soldiers ambush and mortally wound Confederate raider William Quantrill, who lingers until his death on June 6
May 10 American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is captured by Union troops near Irwinville, Georgia
May 12 American Civil War: The Battle of Palmito Ranch: The first day of the last major land action to take place during the Civil War, resulting in a Confederate victory
May 13 American Civil War: Battle of Palmito Ranch – in far south Texas, more than a month after Confederate General Robert E. Lee's surrender, the last land battle of the Civil War ends with a Confederate victory
May 17 The International Telegraph Union (later the International Telecommunication Union) is established in Paris
May 25 In Mobile, Alabama, 300 are killed when an ordnance depot explodes
May 26 American Civil War: the Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of the Confederate Trans-Mississippi division, is the last full general of the Confederate Army to surrender, at Galveston, Texas
Jun 11 The Naval Battle of Riachuelo is fought on the rivulet Riachuelo (Argentina), between the Paraguayan Navy on one side and the Brazilian Navy on the other. The Brazilian victory was crucial for the later success of the Triple Alliance (Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina) in the Paraguayan War
Jun 19 Over two years after the Emancipation Proclamation, slaves in Galveston, Texas, United States, are finally informed of their freedom. The anniversary is still officially celebrated in Texas and 41 other contiguous states as Juneteenth
Jun 23 American Civil War: at Fort Towson in the Oklahoma Territory, Confederate, Brigadier General Stand Watie surrenders the last significant rebel army
Jun 28 The Army of the Potomac is disbanded
Jul 4 Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is published