1866 events in history

Jan 12 The Royal Aeronautical Society is formed in London
Jan 18 Wesley College, Melbourne is established
Feb 16 Spencer Compton Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington becomes British Secretary of State for War
Feb 25 Miners in Calaveras County, California, discover what is now called the Calaveras Skull - human remains that supposedly indicated that man, mastodons, and elephants had co-existed
Mar 31 The Spanish Navy bombs the harbor of Valparaíso, Chile
Apr 4 Alexander II of Russia narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by Dmitry Karakozov in the city of Saint Petersburg
Apr 6 The Grand Army of the Republic, an American patriotic organization composed of Union veterans of the American Civil War, is founded. It lasts until 1956
Apr 8 Italy and Prussia ally against the Austrian Empire
Apr 10 The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City by Henry Bergh
May 1 The Memphis Race Riots begin. In three days time, 46 blacks and two whites were killed. Reports of the atrocities influenced passage of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
May 2 Peruvian defenders fight off the Spanish fleet at the Battle of Callao
May 5 Memorial Day first celebrated in United States at Waterloo, New York
May 10 Romania National Holiday 1866-1947, The Modern Monarchy Instauration of the Kingdom of Romania, Carol I of Romania
May 16 The U.S. Congress eliminates the half dime coin and replaces it with the five cent piece, or nickel
May 31 In the Fenian Invasion of Canada, John O'Neill leads 850 Fenian raiders across the Niagara River at Buffalo, New York/Fort Erie, Ontario, as part of an effort to free Ireland from the United Kingdom. Canadian militia and British regulars repulse the invaders in over the next three days, at a cost of 9 dead and 38 wounded to the Fenian's 19 dead and about 17 wounded
Jun 2 Fenian raids: the Fenians are victorious over Canadian forces in both the Battle of Ridgeway and the Battle of Fort Erie
Jun 3 The Fenians are driven out of Fort Erie, Ontario, into the United States
Jun 7 1,800 Fenian raiders are repelled back to the United States after they looted and plundered around Saint-Armand and Frelighsburg, Quebec
Jun 24 Battle of Custoza: an Austrian army defeats the Italian army during the Austro-Prussian War
Jul 3 Austro-Prussian War is decided at the Battle of Königgratz, resulting in Prussia taking over as the prominent German nation from Austria
Jul 20 Austro-Prussian War: Battle of Lissa – The Austrian Navy , led by Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, defeats the Italian Navy near the island of Vis in the Adriatic Sea
Jul 24 Reconstruction: Tennessee becomes the first U.S. state to be readmitted to the Union following the American Civil War
Jul 25 The United States Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army. Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to be promoted to this rank
Jul 27 The first permanent transatlantic telegraph cable is successfully completed, stretching from Valentia Island, Ireland, to Heart's Content, Newfoundland
Jul 28 At the age of 18, Vinnie Ream becomes the first and youngest female artist to receive a commission from the United States government for a statue (of Abraham Lincoln)
Jul 30 New Orleans, Louisiana's Democratic government orders police to raid an integrated Republican Party meeting, killing 40 people and injuring 150
Aug 17 The Grand Duchy of Baden announces her withdrawal from the German Confederation and signs a treaty of peace and alliance with Prussia
Aug 20 President Andrew Johnson formally declares the American Civil War over
Aug 23 Austro-Prussian War ends with the Treaty of Prague
Sep 22 Battle of Curupayty in the Paraguayan War
Oct 19 Venice - Annexion of Veneto and Mantua to Italy - At Hotel Europa, Austria hands over Veneto to France, which hands it immediately over to Italy
Oct 22 A plebiscite ratifies the annexion of Veneto and Mantua to Italy, occurred three days before, on October 19