1868 events in history

Jan 3 Meiji Restoration in Japan: The Tokugawa shogunate is abolished; agents of Satsuma and Chōshū seize power
Jan 27 Boshin War: The Battle of Toba-Fushimi between forces of the Tokugawa shogunate and pro-Imperial factions begins, which will end in defeat for the shogunate, and is a pivotal point in the Meiji Restoration
Feb 2 Pro-Imperial forces captured Osaka Castle from the Tokugawa shogunate and burned it to the ground
Feb 24 Andrew Johnson becomes the first President of the United States to be impeached by the United States House of Representatives. He is later acquitted in the Senate
Mar 1 The Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity is founded at the University of Virginia
Mar 5 Mefistofele, an opera by Arrigo Boito receives its première performance at La Scala
Mar 8 Sakai incident: Japanese samurai kill 11 French sailors in the port of Sakai near Osaka
Mar 12 Henry O'Farrell attempts to assassinate Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh
Mar 23 The University of California is founded in Oakland, California when the Organic Act is signed into law
Apr 7 Thomas D'Arcy McGee, one of the Canadian Fathers of Confederation is assassinated by Irish Republicans, in one of the few Canadian political assassinations, and the only one of a federal politician
Apr 10 At Arogee in Abyssinia, British and Indian forces defeat an army of Emperor Tewodros II. While 700 Ethiopians are killed and many more injured, only two British/Indian troops die
Apr 11 Former Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu surrenders Edo Castle to Imperial forces, marking the end of the Tokugawa shogunate
Apr 13 The Abyssinian War ends as British and Indian troops capture Maqdala
May 14 Boshin War: The Battle of Utsunomiya Castle ends as former Tokugawa shogunate forces withdraw northward to Aizu by way of Nikkō
May 16 United States President Andrew Johnson is acquitted in his impeachment trial by one vote in the United States Senate
May 29 The assassination of Michael Obrenovich III, Prince of Serbia, in Belgrade
May 30 Decoration Day (the predecessor of the modern "Memorial Day") is observed in the United States for the first time (by "Commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic" John A. Logan's proclamation on May 5)
Jun 1 The Treaty of Bosque Redondo is signed, allowing the Navajos to return to their lands in Arizona and New Mexico
Jun 23 Typewriter: Christopher Latham Sholes received a patent for an invention he called the "Type-Writer."
Jul 9 The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified guaranteeing African Americans full citizenship and all persons in the United States due process of law
Jul 25 Wyoming becomes a United States territory
Jul 28 The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is certified, establishing African American citizenship and guaranteeing due process of law
Aug 13 A massive earthquake near Arica, Peru, causes an estimated 25,000 casualties, and the subsequent tsunami causes considerable damage as far away as Hawaii and New Zealand
Aug 18 French astronomer Pierre Janssen discovers helium
Sep 19 Spanish revolution: La Gloriosa
Sep 23 Grito de Lares ("Lares Revolt") occurs in Puerto Rico against Spanish rule
Sep 25 The Imperial Russian steam frigate Alexander Nevsky is shipwrecked off Jutland while carrying Grand Duke Alexei of Russia
Sep 28 Battle of Alcolea causes Queen Isabella II of Spain to flee to France
Oct 7 Cornell University holds opening day ceremonies; initial student enrollment is 412, the highest at any American university to that date
Oct 10 Carlos Céspedes issues the Grito de Yara from his plantation, La Demajagua, proclaiming Cuba's independence
Nov 2 Time zone: New Zealand officially adopts a standard time to be observed nationally
Nov 3 John Willis Menard was the first African American elected to the United States Congress. Because of an electoral challenge, he was never seated
Nov 4 Camagüey, Cuba revolts against Spain during the Ten Years' War
Nov 27 American Indian Wars: Battle of Washita River: United States Army Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an attack on Cheyenne living on reservation land
Nov 30 A statue of King Charles XII of Sweden is inaugurated in Stockholm's Kungsträdgården
Dec 10 The first traffic lights are installed, outside the Palace of Westminster in London. Resembling railway signals, they use semaphore arms and are illuminated at night by red and green gas lamps
Dec 11 Paraguayan War: Brazilian troops defeat Paraguayan at the Battle of Avay
Dec 25 U.S. President Andrew Johnson grants unconditional pardon to all Civil War Confederate soldiers