1870 events in history

Jan 1 Adolf Loos, architect, co-founder of modern architecture, baptized in St. Thomas church, Brno, Moravia
Jan 3 Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge begins
Jan 6 The inauguration of the Musikverein in Vienna, Austria
Jan 10 John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil
Jan 15 A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the Democratic Party with a donkey ("A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast for Harper's Weekly)
Jan 23 In Montana, U.S. cavalrymen kill 173 Native Americans, mostly women and children, in what becomes known as the Marias Massacre
Jan 26 American Civil War: Virginia rejoins the Union
Jan 27 The Kappa Alpha Theta fraternity is founded at DePauw University
Feb 3 The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, guaranteeing voting rights to citizens regardless of race
Feb 9 President Ulysses S. Grant signs a joint resolution of Congress establishing the U.S. Weather Bureau
Feb 10 The YWCA is founded in New York City
Feb 15 Stevens Institute of Technology is founded and offers the first Bachelors of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering
Feb 23 Reconstruction Era: Post-U.S. Civil War military control of Mississippi ends and it is readmitted to the Union
Feb 25 Hiram Rhodes Revels, a Republican from Mississippi, is sworn into the United States Senate, becoming the first African American ever to sit in the U.S. Congress
Feb 27 The current flag of Japan is first adopted as the national flag for Japanese merchant ships
Feb 28 The Bulgarian Exarchate is established by decree of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz of the Ottoman Empire
Mar 1 Marshal F.S. López dies during the Battle of Cerro Corá thus marking the end of the Paraguayan War
Mar 30 Texas is readmitted to the Union following Reconstruction
Apr 13 The New York City Metropolitan Museum of Art is founded
May 12 The Manitoba Act is given the Royal Assent, paving the way for Manitoba to become a province of Canada on July 15
May 14 The first game of rugby in New Zealand is played in Nelson between Nelson College and the Nelson Rugby Football Club
Jun 22 US Congress created the United States Department of Justice
Jun 26 The Christian holiday of Christmas is declared a federal holiday in the United States
Jul 1 The United States Department of Justice formally comes into existence
Jul 15 Reconstruction Era of the United States: Georgia becomes the last of the former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union
Jul 15 Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory are transferred to Canada from the Hudson's Bay Company, and the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories are established from these vast territories
Jul 18 The First Vatican Council decrees the dogma of papal infallibility
Jul 19 Franco-Prussian War: France declares war on Prussia
Aug 2 Tower Subway, the world's first underground tube railway, opens in London, England, United Kingdom
Aug 6 Franco-Prussian War: The Battle of Spicheren is fought, resulting in a Prussian victory
Aug 8 The Republic of Ploiești, a failed Radical-Liberal rising against Domnitor Carol of Romania
Aug 16 Franco-Prussian War: The Battle of Mars-la-Tour is fought, resulting in a Prussian victory
Aug 18 Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Gravelotte is fought
Aug 24 The Wolseley Expedition reaches Manitoba to end the Red River Rebellion
Sep 1 Franco-Prussian War: the Battle of Sedan is fought, resulting in a decisive Prussian victory
Sep 2 Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Sedan – Prussian forces take Napoleon III of France and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner
Sep 3 Franco-Prussian War: The Siege of Metz begins, resulting in a decisive Prussian victory on October 23
Sep 4 Emperor Napoleon III of France is deposed and the Third Republic is declared
Sep 6 Louisa Ann Swain of Laramie, Wyoming becomes the first woman in the United States to cast a vote legally after 1807
Sep 18 Old Faithful Geyser is observed and named by Henry D. Washburn during the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition to Yellowstone
Sep 19 Having invaded the Papal States a week earlier, the Italian Army lays siege to Rome, entering the city the next day, after which the Pope described himself as a Prisoner in the Vatican
Sep 19 Franco-Prussian War: The Siege of Paris begins, which will result on January 28, 1871 in the surrender of Paris and a decisive Prussian victory
Sep 20 Bersaglieri corps enter Rome through the Porta Pia and complete the unification of Italy
Oct 7 Franco-Prussian War: Siege of Paris: Léon Gambetta flees Paris in a hot-air balloon
Oct 23 Franco-Prussian War: The Siege of Metz concludes with a decisive Prussian victory
Oct 27 Marshal François Achille Bazaine surrenders to Prussian forces at the conclusion of the Siege of Metz along with 140,000 French soldiers in one of the biggest French defeats of the Franco-Prussian War
Nov 1 In the United States, the Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) makes its first official meteorological forecast
Dec 12 Joseph H. Rainey of South Carolina becomes the second black U.S. congressman, the first being Hiram Revels
Dec 26 The 12.8-km long Fréjus Rail Tunnel through the Alps is completed