1871 events in history

Jan 2 Amadeus I becomes King of Spain
Jan 18 Wilhelm I of Germany is proclaimed the first German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles (France) towards the end of the Franco-Prussian War. The empire is known as the Second Reich to Germans
Jan 19 Franco-Prussian War: In the Siege of Paris, Prussia wins the Battle of St. Quentin. Meanwhile, the French attempt to break the siege in the Battle of Buzenval will end unsuccessfully the following day
Jan 28 Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Paris ends in French defeat and an armistice
Feb 17 The victorious Prussian Army parades through Paris, France after the end of the Siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War
Mar 18 Declaration of the Paris Commune; President of the French Republic, Adolphe Thiers, orders the evacuation of Paris
Mar 21 Otto von Bismarck is appointed Chancellor of the German Empire
Mar 21 Journalist Henry Morton Stanley begins his trek to find the missionary and explorer David Livingstone
Mar 22 In North Carolina, William Woods Holden becomes the first governor of a U.S. state to be removed from office by impeachment
Mar 27 The first international rugby football match, when Scotland defeats England in Edinburgh at Raeburn Place
Mar 28 The Paris Commune is formally established in Paris
Mar 29 The Royal Albert Hall is opened by Queen Victoria
Apr 1 The first stage of the Brill Tramway opens
Apr 20 The Civil Rights Act of 1871 becomes law
Apr 30 The Camp Grant massacre takes place in Arizona Territory
May 4 The National Association, the first professional baseball league, opens its first season in Fort Wayne, Indiana
May 21 Opening of the first rack railway in Europe, the Rigi-Bahnen on Mount Rigi
May 21 French troops invade the Paris Commune and engage its residents in street fighting. By the close of "Bloody Week", some 20,000 communards have been killed and 38,000 arrested
May 22 The U.S. Army issues an order for abandonment of Fort Kearny in Nebraska
May 28 Fall of the Paris Commune
Jun 10 Sinmiyangyo: Captain McLane Tilton leads 109 US Marines in a naval attack on Han River forts on Kanghwa Island, Korea
Jun 16 The University Tests Act allows students to enter the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham without religious tests (except for those intending to study theology)
Jul 2 Victor Emmanuel II of Italy enters Rome after having conquered it from the Papal States
Jul 20 British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada
Jul 30 The Staten Island Ferry Westfield's boiler explodes, killing over 85 people
Aug 29 Emperor Meiji orders the abolition of the han system and the establishment of prefectures as local centers of administration. (Traditional Japanese date: July 14, 1871)
Sep 20 Bishop John Coleridge Patteson is martyred on the island of Nukapu, a Polynesian outlier island now in the Temotu Province of the Solomon Islands. He is the first bishop of Melanesia
Sep 28 Brazilian Parliament passes the Law of the Free Womb, granting freedom to all new children born to slaves, the first major step in the eradication of slavery in Brazil
Oct 8 Four major fires break out on the shores of Lake Michigan in Chicago, Peshtigo, Wisconsin, Holland, Michigan, and Manistee, Michigan including the Great Chicago Fire, and the much deadlier Peshtigo Fire
Oct 10 The Great Chicago Fire: Chicago burns after a barn accident. The fire lasts from October 8 to October 10
Oct 12 Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) enacted by British rule in India, which named over 160 local communities 'Criminal Tribes', i.e. hereditary criminals. Repealed in 1949, after Independence of India
Nov 10 Henry Morton Stanley locates missing explorer and missionary, Dr. David Livingstone in Ujiji, near Lake Tanganyika, famously greeting him with the words, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
Nov 17 The National Rifle Association is granted a charter by the state of New York
Dec 24 Aida opens in Cairo, Egypt
Dec 26 Gilbert and Sullivan collaborate for the first time, on their lost opera, Thespis. It does modestly well, but the two would not collaborate again for four years