Died in 1875

Jan 1 Jacques Crétineau-Joly a French Catholic journalist and historian.
Jan 1 Casimir-Louis-Victurnien de Rochechouart de Mortemart a French soldier, diplomat and politician. In 1830 Charles X of France made him president of the Conseil des ministres
Jan 2 Sofia Kiselyova Potocka - daughter of Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki and Zofia Clavone.
Jan 3 Pierre Larousse a French grammarian, lexicographer and encyclopaedist. He published many of the outstanding educational and reference works of 19th-century France, including the 15 volume Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle
Jan 4 Thomas Stephens (historian) a Welsh apothecary, historian and critic. He was born at Pont Nedd Fechan, Glamorganshire, the son of a shoemaker. His works include The Literature of the Kymry , The History of Trial by Jury in Wales, and an essay in which he demolished the claim of the Welsh under Madoc to the discovery of America. He also wrote on the life and works of the bard Aneurin, and produced an English translation of Y Gododdin. The critical methods that he adopted in his works often made him unpopular with the less discriminating enthusiasts for the glory of Wales, but he earned the respect of serious scholars
Jan 6 Piotr Wysocki a Polish lieutenant and leader of the Polish conspiracy against Russian Tsar Nicolas Nobleman of Odrowąż Coat of Arms, he raised military insurgents on 29 November 1830, starting the November Uprising against Russia. In 1831 he was sentenced to death by Russians, but his sentence was commuted to a 20 years exile in Siberia
Jan 6 Frederick William Elector of Hesse I was, between 1847 and 1866, the last Elector of Hesse-Kassel.
Jan 12 Tongzhi Emperor the tenth emperor of the Qing Dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China. His reign, from 1861 to 1875, which effectively lasted through his adolescence, was largely overshadowed by the rule of his mother Empress Dowager Cixi. Although he had little influence over state affairs, the events of his reign gave rise to what historians call the "Tongzhi Restoration", an unsuccessful attempt to stabilise and modernise China
Jan 13 Infante Sebastian of Portugal and Spain a royal of the 19th century, progenitor of the ducal lines of Hernani, Ansola, Dúrcal and Marchena, and Carlist army commander in the First Carlist War.
Jan 13 Robert Adams (physician) an Irish surgeon.
Jan 20 Jean-François Millet a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France. Millet is noted for his scenes of peasant farmers; he can be categorized as part of the Realism art movement
Jan 23 Charles Kingsley a priest of the Church of England, a university professor, historian and novelist. He is particularly associated with the West Country and northeast Hampshire. He was a friend and correspondent with Charles Darwin
Jan 25 Leopold Jansa a Bohemian violinist, composer, and teacher.
Jan 26 George Finlay a Scottish historian.
Feb 2 Luigi Agnesi a Belgian operatic bass-baritone, conductor and composer.
Feb 5 Arthur von Ramberg an Austrian-born painter who worked in Germany.
Feb 11 Karl Friedrich von Savigny a Prussian diplomat, politician, and a leading member of the Centre Party. His father was the jurist Friedrich Karl von Savigny. He believed that "laws are not made but found"
Feb 15 Eliakim Carmoly a French-Jewish scholar. He was born at Soultz-Haut-Rhin, then in the French department of Haut-Rhin. His real name was Goschel David Behr ; the name Carmoly, borne by his family in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, was adopted by him when quite young. He studied Hebrew and Talmud at Colmar; and, because both French and German were spoken in his native town, he became proficient in those languages
Feb 17 Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander a German astronomer. He is known for his determinations of stellar brightnesses, positions, and distances
Feb 17 Atis Kronvalds a Latvian writer, linguist and pedagogue, as well as a prominent member of the Young Latvia movement.
Feb 21 Augustus Raymond Margary a British diplomat and explorer. The murder of Margary and his entire staff, while surveying overland Asian trade routes, sparked the Margary Affair which led to the Chefoo Convention
Feb 22 Charles Lyell a British lawyer and the foremost geologist of his day. He is best known as the author of Principles of Geology, which popularised James Hutton's concepts of uniformitarianism – the idea that the Earth was shaped by the same processes still in operation today. Principles of Geology also challenged theories popularized by George Cuvier, which were the most accepted and circulated ideas about geology in England at the time. Lyell was also one of the first to believe that the world is older than 300 million years, on the basis of its geological anomalies. Lyell was a close and influential friend of Charles Darwin
Feb 22 Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching. He is a pivotal figure in landscape painting and his vast output simultaneously references the Neo-Classical tradition and anticipates the plein-air innovations of Impressionism
Feb 26 Svetozar Marković an influential Serbian political activist, literary critic and philosopher. He developed an activistic anthropological philosophy with a definite program of social change. He was called the Serbian Nikolay Dobrolyubov
Feb 28 Robert Willis (engineer) an English academic. He was the first Cambridge professor to win widespread recognition as a mechanical engineer, and first set the scientific study of vowels on a respectable foundation, but is now best remembered for his extensive architectural writings, including a 4-volume treatise on the architecture of the University of Cambridge
Mar 1 Tristan Corbière a French poet born in Coat-Congar, Ploujean in Brittany, where he lived most of his life before dying of tuberculosis at the age of 29.
Mar 1 Hubert von Luschka a German anatomist. He lent his name to several structures, including the foramina of Luschka, Luschka's crypts, Luschka's law, Luschka's joints, and Ducts of Luschka
Mar 1 Henry Kellett a British naval officer and explorer.
Mar 3 Adolf Reubke a German organ builder.
Mar 5 Claude-Louis Mathieu a French mathematician and astronomer who began his career as an engineer. He worked with the Bureau des Longitudes and tried to determine the distance of the stars
Mar 7 James Hope Grant the fifth and youngest son of Francis Grant of Kilgraston, Perthshire, and brother of Sir Francis Grant, President of the Royal Academy. He was uncle to Mary Grant the sculptress
Mar 7 John Edward Gray a British zoologist. He was the elder brother of George Robert Gray and son of the pharmacologist and botanist Samuel Frederick Gray
Mar 15 William Maynard Gomm a British Army officer. After taking part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, he served in most of the battles of the Napoleonic Wars. During the Hundred Days he took part in both the Battle of Quatre Bras and the Battle of Waterloo. He went on to be Commander of the troops in Jamaica and in that role established new barracks at Newcastle, Jamaica, high in the mountains. After that he became Governor of Mauritius and, finally, Commander-in-Chief, India in which role he introduced promotion examinations for officers
Mar 17 Ferdinand Laub a Czech violinist and composer.
Mar 19 Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume an illustrious French luthier and winner of many awards. He made over 3,000 instruments and was also a fine businessman and an inventor
Mar 20 January Suchodolski a Polish painter and Army officer.
Mar 20 John Mitchel an Irish nationalist activist, solicitor and political journalist. Born in Camnish, near Dungiven, County Londonderry, Ireland he became a leading member of both Young Ireland and the Irish Confederation. He also became a public voice for the Southern American viewpoint in the United States in the 1850s and 1860s before being elected to the British House of Commons in 1875, only to be disqualified because he was a convicted felon. His Jail Journal is one of Irish nationalism's most famous texts
Mar 25 Louis Amédée Achard a prolific French novelist.
Mar 26 Agricol Perdiguier a French joiner, author and politician. He was known for his writings on the compagnons, or members of workers' brotherhoods, in which he preached peaceful relations between the brotherhoods, and the intellectual and moral improvement of their members. He became a deputy after the 1848 revolution, and was forced into exile after Napoleon III took power in 1851. His last years were spent in obscurity and poverty
Mar 27 Juan Crisóstomo Torrico President of Peru during a brief period in 1842. At age 34, he was the youngest ever president of Peru
Mar 27 Edgar Quinet a French historian and intellectual.
Mar 29 Frans Peter von Knorring a social reformer on the Åland Islands. He was the vicar of Finström from 1834 to 1875 and he organized the educational system in Åland. He started an elementary school at Godby in 1853. The school's syllabus included subjects related to farming. A versatile man who published books on many subjects, such as linguistics, geography, pedagogy and economics, he also founded the first newspaper on Åland in 1868
Apr 2 Francisco Coll Guitart a priest of the Order of Preachers and founded the Dominican Sisters of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II on 29 April 1979 and canonized on 11 October 2009 by Benedict XVI
Apr 4 Karl Mauch a German explorer and geographer of Africa. He reported on the archaeological ruins of Great Zimbabwe in 1871 during his search for the biblical land of Ophir
Apr 6 Moses Hess a German-French-Jewish philosopher and socialist, and one of the founders of Labor Zionism.
Apr 7 Georg Herwegh a German poet.
Apr 11 Heinrich Schwabe Samuel Heinrich Schwabe a German astronomer remembered for his work on sunspots.
Apr 11 Andrew Jackson Hamilton a United States politician during the third quarter of the 19th century. He was a lawyer, state representative, military governor of Texas, as well as the 11th Governor of Texas during Reconstruction
Apr 12 Philipp von Brunnow a Russian diplomat. Brunnow represented Russia in several conferences, and held ambassadorial positions in London , Frankfurt , Berlin , and then returned to London. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne
Apr 24 William Winwood Reade a British historian, explorer, and philosopher. His two best-known books, The Martyrdom of Man and The Outcast , were included in the Thinker's Library