1878 in history

1878 events chronologically

Jan 4 Sofia is emancipated from Ottoman rule
Jan 9 Umberto I becomes King of Italy
Jan 16 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) – Battle of Philippopolis: Captain Aleksandr Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule
Jan 24 The revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, the Governor of Saint Petersburg
Jan 28 Yale Daily News becomes the first daily college newspaper in the United States
Feb 18 John Tunstall is murdered by outlaw Jesse Evans, sparking the Lincoln County War in Lincoln County, New Mexico
Feb 19 Thomas Edison patents the phonograph

Top 7 most famous people born in 1878

Jan 6 Carl Sandburg an American writer and editor best known for poetry. He won three Pulitzer Prizes, two for his poetry and one for his biography of Abraham Lincoln. L. Mencken called Sandburg "indubitably an American in every pulse-beat"
Feb 8 Martin Buber an Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship. Born in Vienna, Buber came from a family of observant Jews, but broke with Jewish custom to pursue secular studies in philosophy. In 1902, he became the editor of the weekly Die Welt, the central organ of the Zionist movement, although he later withdrew from organizational work in Zionism. In 1923, Buber wrote his famous essay on existence, Ich und Du , and in 1925, he began translating the Hebrew Bible into the German language
Mar 15 Rezā Shāh the Shah of the Kingdom of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Jun 5 Pancho Villa one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.
Nov 7 Lise Meitner an Austrian physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics. Meitner was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, an achievement for which her colleague Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize. Meitner is often mentioned as one of the most glaring examples of women's scientific achievement overlooked by the Nobel committee. A 1997 Physics Today study concluded that Meitner's omission was "a rare instance in which personal negative opinions apparently led to the exclusion of a deserving scientist" from the Nobel. Element 109, meitnerium, is named in her honour
Dec 4 Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia the youngest son of Emperor Alexander III of Russia.
Dec 18 Joseph Stalin the dictator of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.

Top 7 most famous people died in 1878

Jan 8 Nikolay Nekrasov a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia won him Fyodor Dostoyevsky's admiration and made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky and Nikolay Chernyshevsky. He is credited with introducing into Russian poetry ternary meters and the technique of dramatic monologue. As the editor of several literary journals, including Sovremennik, Nekrasov was also singularly successful
Jan 9 Victor Emmanuel II of Italy king of Sardinia from 1849 until, on 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878. The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland
Feb 7 Pope Pius IX born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned from 16 June 1846 to his death in 1878. He was the longest-reigning elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church — over 31 years. During his pontificate, he convened the First Vatican Council , which decreed papal infallibility, but the council was cut short due to the loss of the Papal States
Feb 10 Claude Bernard a French physiologist. Historian Bernard Cohen of Harvard University called Bernard "one of the greatest of all men of science". Among many other accomplishments, he was one of the first to suggest the use of blind experiments to ensure the objectivity of scientific observations. He was the first to define the term milieu intérieur, now known as homeostasis
May 13 Joseph Henry an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, as well as a founding member of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, a precursor of the Smithsonian Institution. He was highly regarded during his lifetime. While building electromagnets, Henry discovered the electromagnetic phenomenon of self-inductance. He also discovered mutual inductance independently of Michael Faraday, , though Faraday was the first to publish his results. Henry developed the electromagnet into a practical device. He invented a precursor to the electric doorbell and electric relay. The SI unit of inductance, the henry, is named in his honor. Henry's work on the electromagnetic relay was the basis of the practical electrical telegraph, invented by Samuel B. Morse, , and Sir Charles Wheatstone, , separately
May 28 John Russell 1st Earl Russell a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister on two occasions during the mid-19th century. Scion of one of the most powerful aristocratic families, his great achievements, says J. Taylor, were based on his indefatigable battles in Parliament over the years on behalf of the expansion of liberty; after each loss he tried again and again, until finally his efforts were largely successful. Woodward, however, argued that he was too much the abstract theorist, so that "He was more concerned with the removal of obstacles to civil liberty than with the creation of a more reasonable and civilized society. Nevertheless Russell led his Whig Party into support for reform; he was the principal architect of the great Reform Act of 1832. As Prime Minister his luck ran out. He took much of the blame for the government's failures in dealing with the Irish famine. Taylor concludes that as prime minister, he:
Dec 14 Princess Alice of the United Kingdom the third child and second daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.