Died in 1878

Jan 4 Thomas Vernon Wollaston a prominent English entomologist and malacologist, becoming especially known for his studies of Coleoptera inhabiting several North Atlantic archipelagoes. He was well-placed socially. His religious beliefs effectively prevented him from supporting Charles Darwin's theories after 1859, but Darwin remained a close friend. Wollaston supported the theory that continental lands had once extended outward farther to encompass some of the island groups he studied
Jan 5 Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora an Italian general and statesman. His brother Alessandro La Marmora founded the branch of the Italian army now called the Bersaglieri
Jan 7 François-Vincent Raspail a French chemist, naturalist, physician, physiologist, attorney, and socialist politician.
Jan 8 Nikolay Nekrasov a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia won him Fyodor Dostoyevsky's admiration and made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky and Nikolay Chernyshevsky. He is credited with introducing into Russian poetry ternary meters and the technique of dramatic monologue. As the editor of several literary journals, including Sovremennik, Nekrasov was also singularly successful
Jan 8 Charles Cousin-Montauban Comte de Palikao a French general and statesman.
Jan 9 Victor Emmanuel II of Italy king of Sardinia from 1849 until, on 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878. The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland
Jan 10 Andrew Dickson Murray a Scottish lawyer, botanist, zoologist and entomologist. Murray studied insects which caused crop damage, specialising in the Coleoptera. In botany, he specialised in the Coniferae, in particular the Pacific rim conifer species
Jan 10 Dimitrios Voulgaris a Greek revolutionary fighter during the Greek War of Independence of 1821 who became a politician after independence. He was nicknamed "Tsoumpes" after the distinctive Ottoman-style robe he wore
Jan 10 William Stokes (physician) an Irish physician, who was Regius Professor of Physic at the University of Dublin. He graduated from the University of Edinburgh Medical School with an MD in 1825 later returning the practice in Dublin at Meath Hospital. he went on to create two important works on cardiac and pulmonary diseases – A Treatise on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of the Chest and The Diseases of the Heart and Aorta – as well as one of the first treatises on the use of the stethoscope. He emphasised the importance of clinical examination in forming diagnoses, and of ward-based learning for students of medicine
Jan 15 Carlo Blasis an Italian dancer, choreographer and dance theoretician. He is well known for his very rigorous dance classes, sometimes lasting four hours long. Blasis insisted that his students learn theories and definitions of dance steps. He trained all of Enrico Cecchetti's teachers and it is thought that Blasis's influence in his training is what led Cecchetti to create the Cecchetti method of ballet
Jan 17 Edward Shepherd Creasy an English historian and jurist.
Jan 18 Frans de Cort a Flemish writer. Professionally he was, first a clerk, editor, bookkeeper for a shipping company, and in 1861 a secretary at the military court
Jan 18 Antoine César Becquerel a French scientist and a pioneer in the study of electric and luminescent phenomena.
Jan 19 Ede Szigligeti a Hungarian dramatist.
Jan 19 Henri Victor Regnault a French chemist and physicist best known for his careful measurements of the thermal properties of gases. He was an early thermodynamicist and was mentor to William Thomson in the late 1840s
Jan 24 Pieter Bleeker a Dutch medical doctor, ichthyologist and herpetologist. He was famous for the Atlas Ichthyologique des Orientales Neerlandaises, his monumental work on the fishes of East Asia; it was published between 1862 and 1877
Jan 26 Ernst Heinrich Weber considered one of the founders of experimental psychology. Weber was an influential and important figure in the areas of physiology and psychology during his lifetime and beyond. His studies on sensation and touch, along with his emphasis on good experimental techniques gave way to new directions and areas of study for future psychologists, physiologists, and anatomists
Jan 29 Bruno Hildebrand a German economist representing the "older" historical school of economics. His economic thinking was highly critical of classical economists, especially of David Ricardo. His magnum opus was Economics of the Present and the Future. The basic aim of this work was to establish laws of economic development. Hildebrand also stated that economic development was linear not cyclical. He supported socialist theory on the basis of religion, basic morals, and his beliefs of the negative effect of propriety on economic behavior
Feb 1 George Cruikshank a British caricaturist and book illustrator, praised as the "modern Hogarth" during his life. His book illustrations for his friend Charles Dickens, and many other authors, reached an international audience
Feb 7 Pope Pius IX born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned from 16 June 1846 to his death in 1878. He was the longest-reigning elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church — over 31 years. During his pontificate, he convened the First Vatican Council , which decreed papal infallibility, but the council was cut short due to the loss of the Papal States
Feb 8 Elias Magnus Fries a Swedish mycologist and botanist.
Feb 10 Claude Bernard a French physiologist. Historian Bernard Cohen of Harvard University called Bernard "one of the greatest of all men of science". Among many other accomplishments, he was one of the first to suggest the use of blind experiments to ensure the objectivity of scientific observations. He was the first to define the term milieu intérieur, now known as homeostasis
Feb 19 Charles-François Daubigny considered an important precursor of Impressionism.
Feb 20 Michel Charles Durieu de Maisonneuve a French soldier and botanist who was a native of Saint-Eutrope-de-Born in the department of Lot-et-Garonne.
Feb 25 Marc Athanase Parfait Œillet des Murs a French amateur ornithologist and local politician and historian.
Feb 25 Townsend Harris a successful New York City merchant and minor politician, and the first United States Consul General to Japan. He negotiated the "Harris Treaty" between the US and Japan and is credited as the diplomat who first opened the Empire of Japan to foreign trade and culture in the Edo period
Feb 26 Angelo Secchi an Italian astronomer. He was Director of the Observatory at the Pontifical Gregorian University for 28 years. He was a pioneer in astronomical spectroscopy, and was one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the Sun is a star
Mar 1 Ludwig Arndts von Arnesberg a German jurist.
Mar 1 Johann Baptist Alzog a German theologian and Catholic church historian.
Mar 2 John Cochrane (chess player) a Scottish chess master and lawyer. After serving in the Royal Navy Cochrane chose to become a barrister. While studying law, he became a very strong chess player and published a book on the game, which included the Cochrane variation of the Salvio Gambit, a main line of the King's Gambit. Around this time he played against the Frenchmen Deschapelles and Labourdonnais, who were acknowledged to be Europe's strongest players at the time
Mar 3 Joseph Bonomi the Younger an English sculptor, artist, Egyptologist and museum curator.
Mar 8 Wilhelm Siegmund Teuffel born at Ludwigsburg in the Kingdom of Württemberg. In 1849 he was appointed extraordinary, in 1857 ordinary professor in the university of Tübingen, which post he held till his death
Mar 8 Archduke Franz Karl of Austria father of two emperors as well as the grandfather of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, whose assassination sparked the hostilities that led to the outbreak of World War I, and the great-grandfather of the last Habsburg emperor Karl I.
Mar 9 Mirza Fatali Akhundov a celebrated Azerbaijani author, playwright, philosopher, and founder of modern literary criticism, "who acquired fame primarily as the writer of European-inspired plays in the Azeri Turkic language". Akhundzade singlehandedly opened a new stage of development of Azerbaijani literature and is also considered one of the founders of modern Iranian literature. He was also the founder of materialism and atheism movement in Azerbaijan and one of forerunners of modern Iranian nationalism
Mar 12 Alexey Tarasovich Markov a Russian history painter, academician and Professor Emeritus at the Imperial Academy of Arts.
Mar 12 Osip Petrov a Russian operatic bass-baritone of great range and renown, whose career centred on St Petersburg.
Mar 14 Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente a Peruvian politician who also served in the Peruvian military. He was briefly President of Peru from June to September 1829
Mar 14 Joseph VI Audo the Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1847 to 1878.
Mar 20 Caroline Gravière a Gelgian writer.
Mar 20 Julius von Mayer a German physician and physicist and one of the founders of thermodynamics. He is best known for enunciating in 1841 one of the original statements of the conservation of energy or what is now known as one of the first versions of the first law of thermodynamics, namely that "energy can be neither created nor destroyed". In 1842, Mayer described the vital chemical process now referred to as oxidation as the primary source of energy for any living creature. His achievements were overlooked and priority for the discovery of the mechanical equivalent of heat was attributed to James Joule in the following year. He also proposed that plants convert light into chemical energy
Mar 27 George Gilbert Scott an English Gothic revival architect, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches and cathedrals, although he started his career as a leading designer of workhouses. He was one of the most prolific architects which Great Britain has produced, over 800 buildings being designed or altered by him
Apr 1 John Corry Wilson Daly politician, businessperson, militia officer, and the first Mayor of Stratford, Ontario.
Apr 2 Louis de Loménie a French scholar and essayist. He is best known for his biography of Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, and also edited this author's complete works
Apr 4 Joaquín Mosquera a Neogranadine statesman and a Founding Father of Colombia and served as the 3rd and 5th President of Gran Colombia, and as the 3rd Vice President of the Republic of New Granada. During the administration of President Simón Bolívar, he was named as the 1st Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the nascent states of Peru, the United Provinces of South America, and Chile with the purpose of creating unity amongst the South American nations
Apr 4 Vasily Sleptsov a Russian writer and social reformer.
Apr 4 Wolf Heinrich Graf von Baudissin a German diplomat, writer, and translator.
Apr 4 Richard M. Brewer an American cowboy and Lincoln County, New Mexico, lawman. He was the founding leader of the Regulators, a deputized posse who fought in the Lincoln County War
Apr 8 Henrietta Treffz best known as the first wife of Johann Strauss II and a well-known mezzo-soprano appearing in England in 1849 to great acclaim.
Apr 8 Moritz August Seubert a German botanist.
Apr 8 Eugène Belgrand a French engineer who made significant contributions to the modernization of the Parisian sewer system during the 19th century rebuilding of Paris. Much of Belgrand's work remains in use today