1878 events in history

Jan 4 Sofia is emancipated from Ottoman rule
Jan 9 Umberto I becomes King of Italy
Jan 16 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) – Battle of Philippopolis: Captain Aleksandr Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule
Jan 24 The revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, the Governor of Saint Petersburg
Jan 28 Yale Daily News becomes the first daily college newspaper in the United States
Feb 18 John Tunstall is murdered by outlaw Jesse Evans, sparking the Lincoln County War in Lincoln County, New Mexico
Feb 19 Thomas Edison patents the phonograph
Feb 21 The first telephone book is issued in New Haven, Connecticut
Mar 3 The Russo-Turkish War ends as Bulgaria regains its independence from Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of San Stefano; shortly after Congress of Berlin stripped its status to an autonomous state of the Ottoman Empire
Mar 24 The British frigate HMS Eurydice sinks, killing more than 300
May 25 Gilbert and Sullivan's comic opera H.M.S. Pinafore opens at the Opera Comique in London
Jun 4 Cyprus Convention: The Ottoman Empire cedes Cyprus to the United Kingdom but retains nominal title
Jun 10 League of Prizren is established, to oppose the decisions of the Congress of Berlin and the Treaty of San Stephano, as a consequence of which the Albanian lands in Balkans were being partitioned and given to the neighbor states of Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece
Jun 15 Eadweard Muybridge takes a series of photographs to prove that all four feet of a horse leave the ground when it runs; the study becomes the basis of motion pictures
Jul 1 Canada joins the Universal Postal Union
Jul 4 Thoroughbred horses Ten Broeck and Mollie McCarty run a match race, recalled in the song Molly and Tenbrooks
Jul 5 The coat of arms of the Baku Governorate is established
Jul 13 Treaty of Berlin: The European powers redraw the map of the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania become completely independent of the Ottoman Empire
Sep 1 Emma Nutt becomes the world's first female telephone operator when she is recruited by Alexander Graham Bell to the Boston Telephone Dispatch Company
Sep 3 Over 640 die when the crowded pleasure boat Princess Alice collides with the Bywell Castle in the River Thames
Oct 15 The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation
Oct 22 The first rugby match under floodlights takes place in Salford, between Broughton and Swinton
Nov 17 First assassination attempt against Umberto I of Italy by anarchist Giovanni Passannante, who was armed with a dagger. The King survived with a slight wound in an arm. Prime Minister Benedetto Cairoli blocked the aggressor, receiving an injury in a leg
Dec 18 John Kehoe, the last of the Molly Maguires is executed in Pennsylvania
Dec 18 The Al-Thani family become the rulers of the state of Qatar
Dec 31 Karl Benz, working in Mannheim, Germany, filed for a patent on his first reliable two-stroke gas engine, and he was granted the patent in 1879