1881 in history

1881 events chronologically

Jan 25 Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company
Feb 13 The feminist newspaper La Citoyenne is first published in Paris by the activist Hubertine Auclert
Feb 16 The Canadian Pacific Railway is incorporated by Act of Parliament at Ottawa (44th Vic., c.1)
Feb 24 China and Russia sign the Sino-Russian Ili Treaty
Feb 27 First Boer War: The Battle of Majuba Hill takes place
Mar 12 Andrew Watson makes his Scotland debut as the world's first black international football player and captain
Mar 13 Alexander II of Russia is killed near his palace when a bomb is thrown at him. (Gregorian date: it was March 1 in the Julian calendar then in use in Russia.)

Top 7 most famous people born in 1881

Mar 25 Béla Bartók a Hungarian composer and pianist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Liszt are regarded as Hungary's greatest composers. Through his collection and analytical study of folk music, he was one of the founders of comparative musicology, which later became ethnomusicology
May 19 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk a Turkish army officer, reformist statesman, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. His surname, Atatürk , was granted to him in 1934 and forbidden to any other person by the Turkish parliament
Aug 6 Alexander Fleming a Scottish biologist, pharmacologist and botanist. He wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain
Sep 25 Lu Xun the pen name of Zhou Shuren , a leading figure of modern Chinese literature. Writing in Vernacular Chinese as well as Classical Chinese, Lu Xun was a novelist, editor, translator, literary critic, essayist, and poet. In the 1930s he became the titular head of the League of Left-Wing Writers in Shanghai
Oct 11 Hans Kelsen an Austrian jurist, legal philosopher and political philosopher. Due to the rise of national socialism in Germany and Austria, Kelsen left his university post because of his Jewish ancestry, and departed to Geneva in 1933, and then to the United States in 1940. In 1934, Roscoe Pound lauded Kelsen as “undoubtedly the leading jurist of the time.” While in Vienna, Kelsen was a young colleague of Sigmund Freud and wrote on the subject of social psychology and sociology
Oct 25 Pablo Picasso a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. As one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon , and Guernica , a portrayal of the Bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces at the behest of the Spanish nationalist government during the Spanish Civil War
Nov 25 Pope John XXIII born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli , reigned from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963, canonised in 2014 and known to Catholics as Pope Saint John XXIII.

Top 7 most famous people died in 1881

Feb 5 Thomas Carlyle a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher. Considered one of the most important social commentators of its time, he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in the Victorian era. One of those conferences resulted in his famous work On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History where he explains that the key role in history lies in the actions of the "Great Man", claiming that "History is nothing but the biography of the Great Man"
Feb 9 Fyodor Dostoyevsky a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher. Dostoyevsky's literary works explore human psychology in the context of the troubled political, social, and spiritual atmosphere of 19th-century Russia. He began writing in his 20s, and his first novel, Poor Folk, was published in 1846 when he was 25. His major works include Crime and Punishment , The Idiot , Demons and The Brothers Karamazov. His output consists of eleven novels, three novellas, seventeen short novels and numerous other works. Many literary critics rate him as one of the greatest and most prominent psychologists in world literature. His novella Notes From Underground is considered to be one of the first works of existentialist literature
Mar 13 Alexander II of Russia the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland
Mar 28 Modest Mussorgsky a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five". He was an innovator of Russian music in the romantic period. He strove to achieve a uniquely Russian musical identity, often in deliberate defiance of the established conventions of Western music
Apr 19 Benjamin Disraeli a British Conservative politician, writer and aristocrat who twice served as Prime Minister. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal leader William Ewart Gladstone, and his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy". He made the Conservatives the party most identified with the glory and power of the British Empire. He is as of 2014 the only British Prime Minister of Jewish birth
Jul 14 Billy the Kid a 19th century gunman who participated in the Lincoln County War and became a frontier outlaw in the American Old West. According to legend, he killed twenty-one men, but it is generally believed he killed eight. He killed his first man on August 17, 1877, at around 17 years old
Sep 19 James A. Garfield Abram Garfield served as the 20th President of the United States , after completing nine consecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives