Died in 1881

Jan 1 Louis Auguste Blanqui a French socialist and political activist, notable for his revolutionary theory of Blanquism.
Jan 4 Neofit Rilski a 19th-century Bulgarian monk, teacher and artist, and an important figure of the Bulgarian National Revival.
Jan 4 Alphonso Wood an American botanist and theology instructor. He was the author of several works on botany that were popularly used as instructional texts in the 19th century
Jan 7 Georg Heinrich Ferdinand Nesselmann a German orientalist, philologist with interests in Baltic languages, and a mathematics historian.
Jan 10 Pius Zingerle an Austrian Orientalist.
Jan 13 Abraham Ulrikab an Inuk from Hebron, Labrador, in the present day province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, who – along with his family and four other Inuit – agreed to become the latest attraction in the ethnographical shows organized by Carl Hagenbeck, owner of the Tierpark Hagenbeck, a zoo in Hamburg, Germany.
Jan 19 Auguste Mariette a French scholar, archaeologist and Egyptologist, and founder of the Egyptian Department of Antiquities.
Jan 21 Wilhelm Matthias Naeff a Swiss politician and one of the seven initial members of the Swiss Federal Council.
Jan 24 James Collinson a Victorian painter who was a member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood from 1848 to 1850.
Jan 25 Konstantin Thon an official architect of Imperial Russia during the reign of Nicholas His major works include the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow.
Jan 27 Johann Rudolf Kutschker an Austrian Cardinal.
Jan 30 Arthur O'Shaughnessy a British poet and herpetologist of Irish descent, born in London. He is most remembered for his ode beginning with the words "We are the music makers, /And we are the dreamers of dreams" which has been set to music several times
Jan 30 Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens an organist and composer for his instrument.
Feb 2 Aleksey Pisemsky a Russian novelist and dramatist who was regarded as an equal of Ivan Turgenev and Fyodor Dostoyevsky in the late 1850s, but whose reputation suffered a spectacular decline after his fall-out with Sovremennik magazine in the early 1860s. A realistic playwright, along with Aleksandr Ostrovsky he was responsible for the first dramatization of ordinary people in the history of Russian theatre. D.S. Mirsky said: "Pisemsky's great narrative gift and exceptionally strong grip on reality make him one of the best Russian novelists."
Feb 3 John Gould an English ornithologist and bird artist. He published a number of monographs on birds, illustrated by plates that he produced with the assistance of his wife, Elizabeth Gould, and several other artists including Edward Lear, Henry Constantine Richter, Joseph Wolf and William Matthew Hart. He has been considered the father of bird study in Australia and the Gould League in Australia is named after him. His identification of the birds now nicknamed "Darwin's finches" played a role in the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. Gould's work is referenced in Charles Darwin's book, On the Origin of Species
Feb 5 Thomas Carlyle a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher. Considered one of the most important social commentators of its time, he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in the Victorian era. One of those conferences resulted in his famous work On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History where he explains that the key role in history lies in the actions of the "Great Man", claiming that "History is nothing but the biography of the Great Man"
Feb 7 Princess Elisabeth of Thurn and Taxis
Feb 9 Fyodor Dostoyevsky a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher. Dostoyevsky's literary works explore human psychology in the context of the troubled political, social, and spiritual atmosphere of 19th-century Russia. He began writing in his 20s, and his first novel, Poor Folk, was published in 1846 when he was 25. His major works include Crime and Punishment , The Idiot , Demons and The Brothers Karamazov. His output consists of eleven novels, three novellas, seventeen short novels and numerous other works. Many literary critics rate him as one of the greatest and most prominent psychologists in world literature. His novella Notes From Underground is considered to be one of the first works of existentialist literature
Feb 10 John Jeremiah Bigsby an English physician who became known for his work on geology, an interest developed while on military service in Lower and Upper Canada, 1818-1826. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society. Before moving to London, he was Alderman and Mayor of Newark-upon-Trent, 1827-1830. In 1850, he published a lively book recounting his life and travels in British North America, The Shoe and Canoe. In 1868, he published his most important scientific work, Thesaurus Siluricus, being a list of all the fossils which occur in the Silurian formation across the world. He contributed about twenty seven papers to various scientific societies in London. He published Thesaurus Devonico-Carboniferus but died shortly before completing Thesaurus Permianus. In 1874, he was awarded the Murchison Medal. In 1876, he endowed the Bigsby Medal
Feb 13 Alexis Paulin Paris a French scholar and author.
Feb 14 Fernando Wood an American politician of the Democratic Party and the 73rd and 75th mayor of New York City; he also served as a United States Representative and as Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means in both the 45th and 46th Congress.
Feb 16 Gustav Neumann a German chess master.
Feb 17 Émile-Justin Menier born in Paris. In 1853, on the death of his father, Antoine, Émile-Justin Menier inherited a large and successful Parisian company that manufactured a range of medicinal powders
Feb 19 Gerard Krefft Johann Ludwig Gerard Krefft , one of Australia's first and greatest zoologists and palaeontologists. In addition to many scientific papers, his books include The Snakes of Australia, A Catalogue of the Minerals and Rocks in the Australian Museum and A Short Guide to the Australian Fossil Remains in the Australian Museum. He published the scientific description of the Queensland Lungfish, considered a "living fossil"
Feb 25 Cezar Bolliac a Wallachian and Romanian radical political figure, amateur archaeologist, journalist and Romantic poet.
Feb 26 Emmanuel Louis Marie Guignard vicomte de Saint-Priest a French politician and diplomat during the Bourbon Restoration. He was the son of François-Emmanuel Guignard, comte de Saint-Priest, one of King Louis XVI of France's last ministers. Born during the opening days of the French Revolution, he was the godson of Queen Marie Antoinette
Mar 1 Adolphe Joanne a French geographical writer and author of travel books.
Mar 3 Karl Kessler a German-Russian zoologist and author of zoological taxa signed Kessler, who was mostly active in Kiev, Ukraine and conducted most of his studies of birds in Ukrainian regions of the Russian Empire - Kiev Governorate, Volyn Governorate, Kherson Governorate, Poltava Governorate and Bessarabia. He also studied the fish of the Dniester, Dnieper, and Southern Bug rivers, and on the Ukrainian coast of the Black Sea
Mar 3 Karl Weyprecht an Austro-Hungarian explorer. He was an officer in the Austro-Hungarian Navy. He is most famous as an Arctic explorer, and an advocate of international cooperation for scientific polar exploration. Although he did not live to see it occur, he is associated with the organisation of the first International Polar Year
Mar 3 Rudolf Brestel an Austrian politician.
Mar 6 Horatia Nelson the illegitimate daughter of Emma Hamilton and Horatio Nelson.
Mar 9 Caroline Amalie of Augustenburg queen consort of Denmark as the second spouse of King Christian VIII between 1839 and 1848.
Mar 12 Anton Füster an Austrian Roman Catholic priest, theologian, pedagogue, radical political activist and author of Slovene origin. He was one of the leaders of the Viennese March Revolution of 1848
Mar 13 Ronald Campbell Gunn a South African-born Australian botanist and politician.
Mar 13 Ignacy Hryniewiecki a member of the People's Will and the assassin of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
Mar 13 Alexander II of Russia the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland
Mar 20 Justin Clinchant a French Army general, entered the army from St Cyr in 1841.
Mar 21 Anders Fryxell a Swedish historian.
Mar 22 Samuel Courtauld (industrialist) an English industrialist who developed his family firm, Courtaulds, to become one of the leading names in the textile business in Britain.
Mar 23 Nikolai Rubinstein a Russian pianist, conductor and composer. He was the younger brother of Anton Rubinstein and a close friend of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Mar 24 Achille Ernest Oscar Joseph Delesse a French geologist and mineralogist.
Mar 24 Friedrich Hecker a German lawyer, politician and revolutionary. He was one of the most popular speakers and agitators of the 1848 Revolution. After moving to the United States, he served as a brigade commander in the Union Army during the American Civil War
Mar 26 Roman Sanguszko a Polish aristocrat, patriot, political and social activist.
Mar 26 Florian Ceynowa a doctor, political activist, writer, and linguist. He undertook efforts to identify Kashubian language, culture and traditions. He and Alexander Hilferding were not the only ones to study the language and legends of the Kashubians, but they had the greatest influence and prompted others to take up investigations. The individual nature of the Kashubian character and language was first described by Hilferding, to whom we are indebted for the first data about the range of Kashubian dialects. In 1856, he and Ceynowa traveled to the Kashubia. He awakened Kashubian self-identity, thereby opposing Germanisation and Prussian authority, and Polish nobility and clergy. He believed in a separate Kashubian identity and strove for a Russian-led pan-Slavic federation. He strove to create a program aimed at the introduction of a Kashubian standard in grammar, pronunciation and spelling, based on the spirit of the 1848 Revolution. He compiled treatises on Kashubian grammar, and published Kashubian texts along with their translations into other Slavic languages. An important person for Kashubian literature, he was also a translator of Russian texts into Kashubian language
Mar 28 Modest Mussorgsky a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five". He was an innovator of Russian music in the romantic period. He strove to achieve a uniquely Russian musical identity, often in deliberate defiance of the established conventions of Western music
Apr 3 Timofey Mikhaylov a Russian boiler maker who participated in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II.
Apr 3 Andrei Zhelyabov a Russian revolutionary and member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya.
Apr 3 Nikolai Kibalchich a Russian revolutionary, taking part in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II as the main explosive expert for Narodnaya Volya , and also a rocket pioneer. He was the paternal uncle of revolutionary Victor Serge
Apr 7 Pierre Napoléon Bonaparte born in Rome, Italy, the son of Prince Lucien Bonaparte and his second wife Alexandrine de Bleschamp.
Apr 15 Sophia Perovskaya a Russian revolutionary and a member of Narodnaya Volya. She helped orchestrate the successful assassination of Alexander II of Russia