Died in 1882

Jan 3 William Harrison Ainsworth an English historical novelist born in Manchester. He trained as a lawyer, but the legal profession held no attraction for him. While completing his legal studies in London he met the publisher John Ebers, at that time manager of the King's Theatre, Haymarket. Ebers introduced Ainsworth to literary and dramatic circles, and to his daughter, who became Ainsworth's wife
Jan 4 John William Draper an American scientist, philosopher, physician, chemist, historian and photographer. He is credited with producing the first clear photograph of a female face and the first detailed photograph of the Moon. He was also the first president of the American Chemical Society and a founder of the New York University School of Medicine. One of Draper's books, the anti-Catholic History of the Conflict between Religion and Science, was widely read and was translated into several languages. His son, Henry Draper, and his granddaughter, Antonia Maury, were astronomers, her younger sister, Carlotta Maury was a palentologist, and his eldest son, John Christopher Draper, was a chemist
Jan 6 Richard Henry Dana Jr. an American lawyer and politician from Massachusetts, a descendant of an eminent colonial family, who gained renown as the author of the American classic, the memoir Two Years Before the Mast. Both as a writer and as a lawyer, he was a champion of the downtrodden, from seamen to fugitive slaves
Jan 7 Ignacy Łukasiewicz a Polish pharmacist and petroleum industry pioneer who in 1856 built the world's first oil refinery. His achievements included the discovery of how to distill kerosene from seep oil, the invention of the modern kerosene lamp , the introduction of the first modern street lamp in Europe , and the construction of the world's first modern oil well
Jan 10 Giovanni Duprè an Italian sculptor, of distant French stock long settled in Tuscany, who developed a reputation second only to that of his contemporary Lorenzo Bartolini.
Jan 11 Theodor Schwann a German physiologist. His many contributions to biology include the development of cell theory, the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism
Jan 13 Juraj Dobrila a Catholic bishop and benefactor from Istria who advocated for greater national rights for Croats under foreign rule.
Jan 13 Wilhelm Mauser a German weapon designer and manufacturer/industrialist.
Jan 14 Timothy H. O'Sullivan a photographer widely known for his work related to the American Civil War and the Western United States.
Jan 17 Charles Blanc a French art critic, the younger brother of the French socialist politician and historian Louis Blanc. After the February Revolution of 1848, he was director of the Department for the Visual Arts at the Ministry of the Interior. As director of the École des Beaux-Arts he reinstituted a program of copying from casts after the antique and commissioned a series of copies of Old Masters for a projected "Musée des copies" that was objected to by the school's overseers, who cashiered Blanc
Jan 17 Alexander Bullock the 26th Governor of Massachusetts from 1866 to 1869 and helped create the New England Emigrant Aid Society in 1855.
Jan 18 Naile Sultan an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Sultan Abdülmecid I and his wife Şayeste Hanımefendi, the daughter of Prince Tataş Bey Inalipa and his wife Sarey Hanım.
Jan 20 John Linnell (painter) an English landscape and portrait painter and engraver. Linnell was a naturalist and a rival to John Constable. He had a taste for Northern European art of the Renaissance, particularly Albrecht Dürer. He also associated with William Blake, to whom he introduced Samuel Palmer and others of the Ancients
Jan 23 Karl-Maria Kertbeny an Austrian-born Hungarian journalist, memoirist, and human rights campaigner. He is best known for coining the words heterosexual and homosexual
Jan 24 Levi Boone Day Boone served as mayor of Chicago, Illinois for the American Party.
Jan 27 Thomas Edward Cliffe Leslie an Irish jurist and economist. He was professor of jurisprudence and political economy in Queen's College, Belfast, noted for challenging the Wages-Fund doctrine and for addressing contemporary agrarian policy questions. A critic of Ricardian orthodoxy, he said that it had sidelined consumer behaviour and demand. He developed the idea of consumer sovereignty, but insisted that the analysis of demand should be based on historical and comparative institutional work
Jan 31 James Spriggs Payne served as the fourth and eighth President of Liberia, from 1868 to 1870 and from 1876 to 1878. He was the last President to belong to Liberia's Republican Party
Feb 2 Fabio Campana an Italian composer, opera director, conductor, and singing teacher who composed eight operas which premiered between 1838 and 1869. He was born in Livorno, the city where his first two operas premiered, but in the early 1850s he settled in London. There he opened a famous singing school, conducted concerts, and continued his reputation as a prolific and popular composer of art songs and concert arias. His last opera, Esmeralda, premiered in Saint Petersburg in 1869, followed by London performances in 1870 with Adelina Patti in the title role. Campana died in London at the age of 63. Although his operas are no longer performed, his art songs can be heard on several modern recordings
Feb 5 José Selgas a Spanish poet and novelist.
Feb 5 Adolfo Rivadeneyra a Spanish diplomat, orientalist, editor and traveler.
Feb 7 Edouard De Bièfve a Belgian history and portrait painter who was one of the leading representatives of the romantic movement in Belgium.
Feb 8 Berthold Auerbach a German-Jewish poet and author. He was the founder of the German "tendency novel", in which fiction is used as a means of influencing public opinion on social, political, moral, and religious questions
Feb 12 Alexander Arkadyevich Suvorov a Russian general, diplomat and politician.
Feb 13 Henry Highland Garnet an African-American abolitionist, minister, educator and orator. An advocate of militant abolitionism, Garnet was a prominent member of the movement that led beyond moral persuasion toward more political action. Renowned for his skills as a public speaker, he urged blacks to take action and claim their own destinies. For a period, he supported emigration of American free blacks to Mexico, Liberia or the West Indies, but the American Civil War ended that effort
Feb 13 Henri Auguste Barbier a French dramatist and poet.
Feb 19 Egerton Ryerson a Methodist minister, educator, politician, and public education advocate in early Ontario, Canada. He was the leading opponent of the closed oligarchy that ran the province, calling it the "Family Compact."
Feb 28 Thomas Romney Robinson Rev. John Thomas Romney Robinson , usually referred to as Thomas Romney Robinson, was a 19th-century astronomer and physicist. He was the longtime director of the Armagh Astronomical Observatory, one of the chief astronomical observatories in the UK of its time
Mar 1 Theodor Kullak a German pianist, composer, and teacher. He was born in Krotoschin and died in Berlin
Mar 7 John Muir (indologist) a Scottish Sanskrit scholar and Indologist.
Mar 9 Giovanni Lanza an Italian politician and the eighth Prime Minister from 1869 to 1873.
Mar 16 Mariia Surovshchikova-Petipa prima ballerina to the Petersburg Imperial Theatres and wife of the noted choreographer Marius Petipa.
Mar 19 Carl Robert Jakobson an Estonian writer, politician and teacher active in Livonia, Russian Empire. He was one of the most important persons of Estonian national awakening in the second half of the 19th century
Mar 23 Alois Vojtěch Šembera a Czech linguist, historian of literature, writer, journalist and patriot.
Mar 24 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline. He was also the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy and was one of the five Fireside Poets
Mar 26 Thomas Hill Green an English philosopher, political radical and temperance reformer, and a member of the British idealism movement. Like all the British idealists, Green was influenced by the metaphysical historicism of G.W.F. Hegel. He was one of the thinkers behind the philosophy of social liberalism
Mar 27 Jørgen Moe a Norwegian folklorist, bishop, poet and author. He is best known for the Norske Folkeeventyr, a collection of Norwegian folk tales which he edited in collaboration with Peter Christen Asbjørnsen
Mar 28 Sergei Grigoriyevich Stroganov a Russian statesman, art historian, archaeologist, collector, and philanthropist. He was a member of the highly successful and prominent Stroganov family
Apr 3 Jesse James an American outlaw, gang leader, bank robber, train robber, and murderer from the state of Missouri and the most famous member of the James-Younger Gang. Already a celebrity when he was alive, he became a legendary figure of the Wild West after his death. Some recent scholars place him in the context of regional insurgencies of ex-Confederates following the American Civil War rather than a manifestation of frontier lawlessness or alleged economic justice
Apr 3 Friedrich Wilhelm Kücken a German composer and conductor.
Apr 5 Pierre Guillaume Frédéric le Play a French engineer, sociologist and economist.
Apr 6 Max Lilienthal a German-born adviser for the reform of Jewish schools in Russia and later a rabbi and proponent of Reform Judaism in the United States.
Apr 6 Friedrich Drake a German sculptor, best known for his huge memorial statues.
Apr 8 Jules Quicherat a French historian and archaeologist.
Apr 9 Dante Gabriel Rossetti an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais, and was later to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement, most notably William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones. His work also influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement
Apr 11 Ewelina Hańska a Polish noblewoman best known for her marriage to French novelist Honoré de Balzac. Born at the Wierzchownia estate in Volhynia, Hańska married landowner Wacław Hański when she was a teenager. Hański, who was about 20 years her senior, suffered from depression. They had five children, but only a daughter, Anna, survived
Apr 13 Bruno Bauer a German philosopher and historian. As a student of W. Hegel, Bauer was a radical Rationalist in philosophy, politics and Biblical criticism. Bauer investigated the sources of the New Testament and, beginning with Hegel's Hellenophile orientation, concluded that early Christianity owed more to ancient Greek philosophy than to Judaism. Bruno Bauer is also known by his association and sharp break with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and by his later association with Max Stirner and Friedrich Nietzsche. Starting in 1840, he began a series of works arguing that Jesus was a 2nd-century fusion of Jewish, Greek, and Roman theology
Apr 14 Henri Giffard a French engineer. In 1852, he invented the steam injector and the powered airship
Apr 17 George Jennings an English sanitary engineer and plumber who invented the first public flush toilets.
Apr 19 Charles Darwin an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding
Apr 21 Vasile Conta a Romanian philosopher, poet, and politician.