Died in 1884

Jan 2 Johann Gerhard Oncken a pioneer German Baptist preacher, variously referred to as the "Father of Continental Baptists", the "Father of German Baptists" and the "Apostle of European Baptists". Oncken, Gottfried Wilhelm Lehmann , and Julius Wilhelm Köbner were known as the Baptist cloverleaf. G. Oncken helped direct and guide the growth of Baptists throughout Germany and across much of Europe for half a century
Jan 4 Louis Ehlert a German composer and music critic.
Jan 6 Gregor Mendel a German-speaking Moravian scientist and Augustinian friar who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the modern science of genetics. Though farmers had known for centuries that crossbreeding of animals and plants could favor certain desirable traits, Mendel's pea plant experiments conducted between 1856 and 1863 established many of the rules of heredity, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance
Jan 9 Daniel Harrwitz a Jewish German chess master.
Jan 10 Marie Theodor Ratisbonne a noted Jewish convert to the Catholic Church, who became a priest and missionary and who later founded the Congregation of Our Lady of Sion. He was the brother of Maria Alphonse Ratisbonne, who joined him in this effort
Jan 17 Hermann Schlegel a German ornithologist and herpetologist.
Jan 21 La Païva arguably the most successful of 19th-century French courtesans—ambitious, shrewd, manipulative, a notable investor and architecture patron, and a collector of jewels, with a personality so hard-bitten that she was described as the "one great courtesan who appears to have had no redeeming feature". Count Horace de Viel-Castel, a society chronicler, called her "the queen of kept women, the sovereign of her race"
Jan 21 Auguste Franchomme a French cellist and composer. For his contributions to music, he was decorated with the Légion d'honneur in 1884
Jan 24 Johann Christian Gebauer a Danish composer, organist and music theorist.
Jan 25 James Francis the 9th Premier of Victoria. Francis was born in London, and emigrated to Van Diemen's Land in 1847, where he became a businessman. He moved to Victoria in 1853 and became a leading Melbourne merchant. He was a director of the Bank of New South Wales and president of the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce. He married Mary Ogilvie and had eight sons and seven daughters
Jan 25 Périclès Pantazis a major Greek impressionist painter of the 19th century that gained a great reputation as an artist initially in Belgium.
Jan 25 Johann Gottfried Piefke a German conductor, Kapellmeister and composer of military music.
Jan 26 Pavlo Chubynsky a Ukrainian poet and ethnographer whose poem "Shche ne vmerla Ukraina" was set to music and adapted as the Ukrainian national anthem.
Jan 28 Augustin-Alexandre Dumont a French sculptor.
Jan 28 Ismael Urbain a French journalist and interpreter.
Jan 28 Ernst Friedrich Wilhelm Klinkerfues a German astronomer.
Feb 3 Gotthilf Hagen a German physicist and hydraulic engineer.
Feb 3 Eugène Rouher a French statesman of the Second Empire.
Feb 4 George Engelmann a German-American botanist. He was instrumental in describing the flora of the west of North America, then very poorly known; he was particularly active in the Rocky Mountains and northern Mexico, one of his constant companions being another German-American, the botanical illustrator Paulus Roetter
Feb 5 Infanta Maria Anna of Portugal (1843–1884) a Portuguese infanta , the eldest surviving daughter of Queen Maria II of Portugal and her King consort Ferdinand II of Portugal, born Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Feb 7 Johann Friedrich Julius Schmidt a German astronomer and geophysicist.
Feb 8 Cetshwayo kaMpande the King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1872 to 1879 and their leader during the Anglo-Zulu War. His name has been transliterated as Cetawayo, Cetewayo, Cetywajo and Ketchwayo. He famously led the Zulu nation to victory against the British in the Battle of Isandlwana
Feb 11 Bahman Mirza Qajar a Persian Prince of the Qajar Dynasty, son of Abbas Mirza and grandson of Fath Ali Shah. He was Vicergerent of Azerbaijan and Governor-General of Tabriz, and the ancestor of the Persidsky, Bahmanov and Kadjar families of Azerbaijan as well as of the Iranian families Bahmani-Qajar and Bahman. Thus, Bahman Mirza was Ali Akbar Bahman's grandfather
Feb 11 John Hutton Balfour a Scottish botanist. Balfour became a Professor of Botany, first at the University of Glasgow in 1841, moving to Edinburgh University and also becoming Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Her Majesty's Botanist in 1845. He held these posts until his retirement in 1879. Balfour's sister, Magdelene Balfour, married William F. Browne , the well known phrenologist and asylum reformer
Feb 12 Aaron Bernstein a German Jewish author, reformer and scientist.
Feb 14 Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt an American socialite. She was the first wife of President Theodore Roosevelt. They had one child, Alice Lee Roosevelt
Feb 14 Franz Wohlfahrt (composer) a violin teacher in Leipzig, Germany.
Feb 16 Samuel Wells Williams a linguist, official, missionary and Sinologist from the United States in the early 19th century.
Feb 17 Charles Stuart Calverley an English poet and wit. He was the literary father of what has been called "the university school of humour"
Feb 18 Samuel Botsford Buckley an American botanist, geologist, and naturalist. He graduated from Wesleyan University in 1836
Feb 19 Edvard Bergenheim the Archbishop of Turku and the spiritual head of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland between 1850 and 1884.
Feb 19 Karl Müllenhoff a German philologist and a student of Teutonic antiquities.
Feb 24 Georg Büchmann a German philologist. He was born in Berlin, and died there in Schöneberg
Mar 1 Isaac Todhunter best known today for the books he wrote on mathematics and its history.
Mar 4 Francisco Dueñas President of El Salvador 13 May 1851 - 30 January 1852, 1 February 1852 - 1 February 1854 and 1–12 February 1856 and 26 October 1863 - 15 April 1871. He was a member of the Conservative Party
Mar 6 Camillo di Pietro an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and both Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals and later Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
Mar 10 Bernardo Guimarães a Brazilian poet and novelist. He is the author of the famous romances A Escrava Isaura and O Seminarista. He also introduced to Brazilian poetry the verso bestialógico , also referred to as pantagruélico — poems whose verses are very nonsensical, although very metrical. Under the verso bestialógico, he wrote polemical erotic verses, such as "O Elixir do Pajé" and "A Origem do Mênstruo". A non-erotic poem written in verso bestialógico is "Eu Vi dos Polos o Gigante Alado"
Mar 13 Leland Stanford Jr. the namesake of Stanford University, adjacent to Palo Alto, California, United States.
Mar 14 Quintino Sella an Italian statesman and financier.
Mar 14 Buenaventura Báez the President of the Dominican Republic for five nonconsecutive terms. He is known for attempting to annex the Dominican Republic to other countries on multiple occasions. His son Ramón Báez was briefly president in 1914
Mar 18 Anna Bishop an English operatic soprano. She sang in many countries on every continent, and was the most widely travelled singer of the 19th century. She was married to the composer Henry Bishop but abandoned him for the French harpist, composer and entrepreneur Nicolas-Charles Bochsa. She and Bochsa were said to have been the inspiration for Trilby and Svengali in George du Maurier's 1894 novel Trilby
Mar 19 Elias Lönnrot a Finnish physician, philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry. He is best known for compiling Kalevala, the national epic of Finland, from national folk tales that he gathered during several expeditions in Finland, Russian Karelia, the Kola Peninsula and Baltic countries
Mar 21 Ezra Abbot an American biblical scholar.
Mar 23 Henry C. Lord the fourth president of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. He was born in Amherst, Massachusetts, the son of Dartmouth College president Nathan Lord
Mar 24 François Mignet a French journalist and historian of the French Revolution.
Mar 28 Prince Leopold Duke of Albany the eighth child and fourth son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Leopold was later created Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence, and Baron Arklow. He had haemophilia, which led to his death at the age of 30
Apr 3 Ignaz Kuranda an Austrian deputy and political writer.
Apr 4 Alfred Francis Russell served as the tenth President of Liberia from 1883 to 1884. He immigrated to Liberia in 1833 with his mother, Amelie "Milly" Crawford, his cousin, Lucretia Russell and her four children Cynthia, Gilbert, George, and Henry. He served as a Methodist missionary and later owned a large coffee and sugarcane farm. Russell remained in the ministry and served in the Senate as well. He was elected vice-president under Anthony William Gardiner in 1881, becoming President of Liberia on the latter's resignation due to poor health
Apr 5 John Wisden an English cricketer who played 187 first-class cricket matches for three English county cricket teams, Kent, Middlesex and Sussex. He is now best known for launching the eponymous Wisden Cricketers' Almanack in 1864, the year after he retired from first-class cricket
Apr 10 Jean-Baptiste Dumas a French chemist, best known for his works on organic analysis and synthesis, as well as the determination of atomic weights and molecular weights by measuring vapor densities. He also developed a method for the analysis of nitrogen in compounds