Died in 1885

Jan 1 Louis Leroy a French 19th century engraver, painter, and successful playwright. However, he is remembered as the journalist and art critic for the French satirical newspaper Le Charivari, who coined the term "impressionists" to satirise the artists now known by the word
Jan 4 Iosif Kotek a Russian Empire violinist and composer remembered for his association with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. He assisted Tchaikovsky with technical issues in the writing of the solo part in his Violin Concerto in He was also probably his lover at some point, although he was not exclusively homosexual
Jan 5 Prince Adolf of Auersperg a Bohemian and an Austrian statesman.
Jan 6 Bharatendu Harishchandra known as the father of modern Hindi Literature as well as Hindi theatre. He is considered one of the greatest Hindi writers of modern India. A recognised poet, he was also a trend setter in Hindi prose-writing. He was an author of several dramas, life sketches and travel accounts; he also used new media like reports, publications, letters to the editor, translations and literary works to shape public opinion
Jan 6 Peter Christen Asbjørnsen a Norwegian writer and scholar. He and Jørgen Engebretsen Moe were collectors of Norwegian folklore. They were so closely united in their lives' work that their folk tale collections are commonly mentioned only as "Asbjørnsen and Moe"
Jan 11 Mariano Ospina Rodríguez a Colombian politician, journalist and lawyer, founder of the Colombian Conservative Party and later President of Colombia between 1857 and 1861 during the Granadine Confederation.
Jan 12 Prince August of Württemberg a royal Prussian Colonel General of the Cavalry with the rank of Generalfeldmarschall and Kommandierender General of the Guards Corps for more than 20 years. August was a member of the House of Württemberg and a Prince of Württemberg by birth
Jan 13 Schuyler Colfax a United States Representative from Indiana , Speaker of the House of Representatives , and the 17th Vice President of the United States. To date, he is one of only two Americans to have served as both House speaker and vice president
Jan 15 Antoni Edward Odyniec a Polish Romantic-era poet who penned the celebrated "Song of the Filaretes".
Jan 16 Edmond François Valentin About a French novelist, publicist and journalist.
Jan 17 Leopoldine Blahetka an Austrian pianist and composer.
Jan 25 Alois Emanuel Biedermann a Swiss Protestant theologian. He was a prominent dogmatician of the so-called "Young Hegelian" school of thought, and an important advocate of "free Christianity" in Switzerland
Jan 26 Charles George Gordon a British army officer and administrator.
Jan 26 Pavel Pavlovich Demidov 2nd Prince of San Donato a Russian industrialist, jurist, philanthropist and nobleman of the Demidov family. His parents were Aurora Karamzina and her husband Pavel Nikolaievich Demidov
Jan 26 Ivan Khrutsky a Belarus-Russian painter known by his still lifes and portraits.
Jan 26 Edward Davy an English physician, scientist, and inventor who played a prominent role in the development of telegraphy, and invented an electric relay.
Jan 27 Gustav Wilhelm Körber a German lichenologist.
Feb 1 Henri Dupuy de Lôme a French naval architect. He was the son of a naval officer and was born in Ploemeur near Lorient, Brittany, in western France. He was educated at the École Polytechnique and ENSTA. He was particularly active during the 1840–1870 period
Feb 3 Sofja Shcherbatova a prominent Russian philanthropist, the Dame Chevalier of the Order of Saint Catherine. Princess Shcherbatova was the founder of The Grand Dames Helping the Poor charity which she remained the chairman of till 1876, the Nikolskaya Community , many orphanages and shelters for homeless and elderly people. An heir to the famous Apraksin family, she was greatly interested in literature and arts, kept a fashionable Moscow salon and was a friend of Alexander Pushkin, Pyotr Vyazemsky and Mikhail Lermontov, among others
Feb 3 Gregor von Helmersen a Baltic German geologist.
Feb 7 Iwasaki Yatarō a Japanese financier and shipping industrialist, and the founder of Mitsubishi.
Feb 8 Nikolai Severtzov a Russian explorer and naturalist.
Feb 12 Alexandre Mouton a United States Senator and the 11th Governor of Louisiana.
Feb 14 Benjamin B. Hotchkiss one of the leading American ordnance engineers of his day.
Feb 14 Jules Vallès a French journalist and author.
Feb 15 Leopold Damrosch a German American orchestral conductor and composer.
Feb 17 John Francis Campbell a renowned Scottish author and scholar who specialised in Celtic studies. Campbell was known as an authority on Celtic folklore and of the Gaelic peoples in particular. His most famous published work is the bilingual Popular Tales of the West Highlands , The Celtic Dragon Myth and separate Gaelic texts
Feb 18 Charlotte Sainton-Dolby an English contralto, singing teacher and composer.
Mar 2 Joseph Alfred Serret a French mathematician who was born in Paris, France, and died in Versailles, France.
Mar 3 Benjamin Russell (artist) an American artist best known for his accurate watercolors of whaling ships working in New England. Born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, to a wealthy family, Russell started drawing and painting in his late 30s, after a few years spent working as a cooper aboard a whaling ship
Mar 13 Titian Peale a noted American artist, naturalist, entomologist and photographer. He was the sixteenth child and youngest son of noted American naturalist Charles Willson Peale. He is sometimes referred to as Titian Ramsey Peale II to distinguish him from his older brother with the same name who was a favorite of their father and who died at age 18 in 1798
Mar 14 Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs a German pathologist born in Aurich.
Mar 15 Frank North an American interpreter, United States Army officer and politician. He is most well known for organizing and leading the Pawnee Scouts from 1865 to 1877
Mar 17 Nikolay Alexeyevich Orlov a Russian diplomat. He was the Ambassador of Russia to Belgium from July 3, 1859 to December 13, 1869. From December 13, 1869 to May 2, 1870 he was the Ambassador of the Russian Empire to the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Mar 21 Princess Elisabeth of Prussia the second daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia and Landgravine Marie Anna of Hesse-Homburg and a granddaughter of Frederick William II of Prussia. She was the mother-in-law of Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, second daughter of Queen Victoria. Prince Philip is her great-great-grandson
Mar 24 Alfred Enneper a German mathematician. Enneper earned his PhD from the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen in 1856, under the supervision of Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, for his dissertation about functions with complex arguments. After his habilitation in 1859 in Göttingen, he was from 1870 on Professor at Göttingen
Mar 24 Ernest Goüin a French civil engineer and industrialist.
Mar 25 Karl Schwarz a German Protestant theologian.
Mar 26 Anson Stager the co-founder of Western Union, the first president of Western Electric Manufacturing Company and Union Army general, where he was head of the Military Telegraph Department during the Civil War.
Mar 28 Ludvig Norman a Swedish composer, conductor, pianist, and music teacher. Together with Franz Berwald and Adolf Fredrik Lindblad, he ranks among the most important Swedish symphonists of the 19th century
Mar 31 Franz Abt a German composer and choral conductor. He composed roughly 3,000 individual works mostly in the area of vocal music. Several of his songs were at one time universally sung, and have obtained a more or less permanent place in the popular repertory. During his lifetime, Abt was a renowned choral conductor and he spent much of the last three decades of his life working as a guest conductor with choirs throughout Europe and in the United States
Apr 2 James Edward Alexander a Scottish soldier, traveller and author.
Apr 2 Justo Rufino Barrios a President of Guatemala known for his liberal reforms and his attempts to reunite Central America.
Apr 6 Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein a Prussian General der Infanterie.
Apr 7 Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold a German physiologist and zoologist. He was responsible for the introduction of the taxa Arthropoda and Rhizopoda, and for defining the taxon Protozoa specifically for single-celled organisms
Apr 8 C. A. Rosetti a Romanian literary and political leader, born in Bucharest into a Phanariot Greek family of Italian origin.
Apr 16 Joshua Baker the 22nd Governor of Louisiana during Reconstruction.
Apr 17 John Marston (sailor) an officer in the United States Navy.
Apr 18 Rudolf Eitelberger an art historian and the first Ordinarius for art history at the University of Vienna. He is considered as the founder of the Vienna School of Art History
Apr 19 Nikolay Kostomarov one of the most distinguished Russian historians, a Professor of History at the Kiev University and later at the Petersburg University, an author of many books, including his famous biography of the seventeenth century Hetman of Zaporozhian Cossacks Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and his fundamental 3-volume Russian History in Biographies of its main figures. Nikolay Kostomarov was so important for Ukrainian culture, that some researchers observe him as an Ukrainian historian, as well as Russian