Died in 1886

Jan 4 Pyotr Tkachev a Russian writer and critic who formulated many of the revolutionary principles that would later be further developed and put into action by Vladimir Lenin. Although Tkachev has sometimes been known as "the First Bolshevik", he did not figure prominently in the mythology of the Soviet Union, as to do so would have detracted from the Bolshevik claim to originality of Lenin's revolutionary thought
Jan 7 Richard Dadd an English painter of the Victorian era, noted for his depictions of fairies and other supernatural subjects, Orientalist scenes, and enigmatic genre scenes, rendered with obsessively minuscule detail. Most of the works for which he is best known were created while he was a patient in a psychiatric hospital
Jan 16 Frédéric Alfred Pierre comte de Falloux a French politician and author, famous for having given his name to two laws on education, favoring private Catholic teaching.
Jan 16 Amilcare Ponchielli an Italian composer, mainly of operas.
Jan 17 Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry a French painter.
Jan 17 Eduard Oscar Schmidt a German zoologist and phycologist.
Jan 18 Baldassare Verazzi an Italian painter.
Jan 24 Stanisław Krusiński a Polish economist, sociologist and political activists. One of the first Polish Marxists. With his colleagues , he translated Karl Marx's Capital into Polish
Jan 26 Lev Lvovich Kamenev a Russian landscape painter.
Jan 26 David Rice Atchison a mid-19th century Democratic United States Senator from Missouri. He served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate for six years. He is best known for the claim that for one day he may have been Acting President of the United States
Jan 31 Adolf Berge an Imperial Russian bureaucrat and an Orientalist, with principal interests in the history and culture of the South Caucasus.
Feb 1 Juan Esteban Pedernera interim President of Argentina during a brief period in 1861.
Feb 2 Leopold Heinrich Fischer a German zoologist and mineralogist. He was the son of d’Aloys Fischer. He studied medicine at Fribourg-en-Brisgau but also at Vienna. Fischer practised medicine in Freiburg-in-Brisgau and from 1845 taught zoology and mineralogy there. Initially an assistant, he became a professor in 1859. His most significant works are:
Feb 2 Leopold Hereditary Prince of Anhalt a German prince of the House of Ascania. From 1871 until his death he was heir to the duchy of Anhalt
Feb 3 Marcus Kann an Austrian chess player.
Feb 3 Jean Pirro a French linguist who in 1868 invented the "universal language", Universalglot. He was born in Woustviller, France. He was also the father of André Pirro
Feb 4 Hans Victor von Unruh a Prussian civil servant and politician, President of the Prussian National Assembly of 1848 and Member of the Reichstag of the German Empire.
Feb 5 Richard Robert Madden an Irish doctor, writer, abolitionist and historian of the United Irishmen. Madden took an active role in trying to impose anti-slavery rules in Jamaica on behalf of the British government
Feb 8 Ivan Aksakov a Russian littérateur and notable Slavophile.
Feb 9 Winfield Scott Hancock a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. He served with distinction in the Army for four decades, including service in the Mexican-American War and as a Union general in the American Civil War. Known to his Army colleagues as "Hancock the Superb", he was noted in particular for his personal leadership at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. One military historian wrote, "No other Union general at Gettysburg dominated men by the sheer force of their presence more completely than Hancock." As another wrote, "his tactical skill had won him the quick admiration of adversaries who had come to know him as the 'Thunderbolt of the Army of the Potomac'." His military service continued after the Civil War, as Hancock participated in the military Reconstruction of the South and the Army's presence at the Western frontier
Feb 11 Carl Johan Malmsten a Swedish mathematician and politician. He is notable for early research into the theory of functions of a complex variable, for the evaluation of several important logarithmic integrals and series, for his studies in the theory of Zeta-function related series and integrals, as well as for helping Mittag-Leffler start the journal Acta Mathematica
Feb 12 Jules Jamin a French physicist. He was professor of physics at École Polytechnique from 1852 to 1881 and received the Rumford Medal in 1858 for his work on light. He improved Brewster's inclined interference plates with the development of the Jamin interferometer
Feb 12 Randolph Caldecott a British artist and illustrator, born in Chester. The Caldecott Medal was named in his honour. He exercised his art chiefly in book illustrations. His abilities as an artist were promptly and generously recognised by the Royal Academy. Caldecott greatly influenced illustration of children's books during the nineteenth century. Two books illustrated by him, priced at a shilling each, were published every Christmas for eight years
Feb 15 Edward Cardwell 1st Viscount Cardwell a prominent British politician in the Peelite and Liberal parties during the middle of the 19th century. He is best remembered for his tenure as Secretary of State for War between 1868 and 1874 and the introduction of the Cardwell Reforms
Feb 16 Albert Küchler a Danish painter associated with the Danish Golden Age. He mainly painted genre works and portraits. He was highly esteemed by his contemporaries but is little known today
Feb 16 Louis Köhler a German composer, conductor and piano teacher.
Feb 19 Joseph Matthäus Aigner a 19th-century Austrian portrait painter, who studied under Friedrich von Amerling and Carl Rahl. He painted portraits of Franz Joseph I of Austria and his wife Elizabeth, Franz Grillparzer, Friedrich Halm, Nikolaus Lenau, and Maximilian I of Mexico
Feb 21 Jozef Miloslav Hurban a leader of the Slovak National Council and the Slovak Uprising in 1848/1849, a Slovak writer, journalist, politician, organizer of Slovak cultural life and a Protestant priest. He first supported Ján Kollár, but later turned to Ľudovít Štúr. His son Svetozár Hurban-Vajanský followed his father's footsteps both as a writer and nationalist
Feb 24 Hugh Stowell Brown a Manx Christian minister and renowned preacher.
Mar 9 William S. Clark a professor of chemistry, botany and zoology, a colonel during the American Civil War, and a leader in agricultural education. Raised and schooled in Easthampton, Massachusetts, Clark spent most of his adult life in Amherst, Massachusetts. He graduated from Amherst College in 1848 and obtained a doctorate in chemistry from Georgia Augusta University in Göttingen in 1852. He then served as professor of chemistry at Amherst College from 1852 to 1867. During the Civil War, he was granted leave from Amherst to serve with the 21st Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, eventually achieving the rank of colonel and the command of that unit
Mar 11 Franz Antoine an Austrian horticulturalist and gardener.
Mar 15 Edward Tuckerman an American botanist and professor who made significant contributions to the study of lichens and other alpine plants. He was a founding member of the Natural History Society of Boston and most of his career was spent at Amherst College. He did the majority of his collecting on the slopes of Mount Washington in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Tuckerman Ravine was named in his honor. The standard botanical author abbreviation Tuck. is applied to species he described
Mar 17 Leopold Zunz a German Reform rabbi and writer, the founder of what has been termed "Jewish Studies" or "Judaic Studies" , the critical investigation of Jewish literature, hymnology and ritual. Zunz's historical investigations and contemporary writings had an important influence on contemporary Judaism
Mar 20 Pyotr Schebalsky a Russian author, literary historian, publicist and journalist, author of comprehensive studies on history of Russian literature, later editor of the Varshavsky Dnevnik magazine.
Mar 30 Joseph-Alfred Mousseau a French Canadian politician, who served in the federal Cabinet and also as Premier of Quebec.
Mar 31 Józef Bohdan Zaleski a Polish Romantic poet. A friend of Adam Mickiewicz, Zaleski founded the "Ukrainian poetic school."
Apr 3 Arthur Pember a British sportsman, journalist and author, notable for being the first president of The Football Association, from 1863 to 1867, as a member of N.N. Club or N.N. Kilburn, one of the founder clubs of the FA
Apr 9 Joseph Victor von Scheffel a German poet and novelist.
Apr 13 John Humphrey Noyes an American preacher, radical religious philosopher, and utopian socialist. He founded the Putney, Oneida, and Wallingford Communities and is credited for having coined the term "free love"
Apr 20 Charles-François-Frédéric marquis de Montholon-Sémonville a French senator, diplomat, and French ambassador to the United States, from 1864 to 1866.
Apr 27 Eugène Isabey a French painter, draftsman, and printmaker.
Apr 27 Henry Hobson Richardson a prominent American architect who designed buildings in Albany, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Milwaukee and other cities. The style he popularized is named for him: Richardsonian Romanesque. Along with Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright, Richardson is one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture"
May 4 James Muspratt a British chemical manufacturer who was the first to make alkali by the Leblanc process on a large scale in the United Kingdom.
May 9 Facundo Bacardi a Spanish-Cuban businessman. In 1862 he founded the eponymous Bacardi rum distillery
May 15 Emily Dickinson an American poet. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a successful family with strong community ties, she lived a mostly introverted and reclusive life. After she studied at the Amherst Academy for seven years in her youth, she spent a short time at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before returning to her family's house in Amherst. Considered an eccentric by the locals, she became known for her penchant for white clothing and her reluctance to greet guests or, later in life, even leave her room. Most of her friendships were therefore carried out by correspondence
May 17 John Deere (inventor) an American blacksmith and manufacturer who founded Deere & Company, one of the largest and leading agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers in the world. Born in Rutland, Vermont, Deere moved to Illinois and invented the first commercially successful steel plow in 1837
May 17 Erskine May 1st Baron Farnborough a British constitutional theorist. This derived from his career at the House of Commons
May 21 Stephen Pearl Andrews an American individualist anarchist, linguist, political philosopher, outspoken abolitionist, and author of several books on the labor movement and Individualist anarchism.
May 22 Heinrich Auspitz a Jewish Austrian dermatologist. He was the husband of pianist Auguste Auspitz-Kólar
May 23 John Michel a British Army officer. He commanded the 6th Regiment of Foot during the Eighth Xhosa War in 1851 and served as Chief of Staff of the British Army's Turkish contingent during the Crimean War in 1854 before transferring to India where he commanded the Malwa Field Force which pursued Tatya Tope in the aftermath of the Indian Mutiny. He then commanded the 1st Division at the Battle of Taku Forts in August 1860 during the Second Opium War and took part in the burning of the Old Summer Palace at Peking in October 1860 as a reprisal for the torture and murder of British prisoners before being appointed Commander of British Troops in China and Hong Kong in 1861. He later commanded of the forces in British North America playing a key role in the organization of the militia volunteers in resistance to the Fenian raids invasions in 1866. His last appointment was as Commander-in-Chief, Ireland in 1875