Died in 1888

Jan 2 Isaac R. Trimble a United States Army officer, a civil engineer, a prominent railroad construction superintendent and executive, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, most famous for his leadership role in the assault known as Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Jan 3 Ivan Antunović a Croatian writer, one of the most prominent public persons among the Bunjevci and Šokci people of his time. He was titular bishop in the service of the Kalocsa Archdiocese, Hungary. Antunović's writings helped preserve the language and culture of the Bunjevci and Šokci people
Jan 8 Auguste Maquet a French author, best known as the chief collaborator of French novelist Alexandre Dumas, père, co-writing such works as The Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers.
Jan 10 Peter Parker (physician) an American physician and a missionary who introduced Western medical techniques into Qing Dynasty China. It was said that Parker "opened China to the gospel at the point of a lancet."
Jan 11 Yuriy Fedkovych a Ukrainian writer, poet, folklorist and translator.
Jan 14 Stephen Heller a Hungarian pianist, teacher and composer whose career spanned the period from Schumann to Bizet, and was an influence for later Romantic composers.
Jan 17 Big Bear a Cree leader who was notable for his involvement in the North-West Rebellion and his subsequent imprisonment.
Jan 17 Maggie Hall a prostitute originally from Dublin, Ireland in early Murray, Idaho history.
Jan 19 Heinrich Anton de Bary a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist.
Jan 20 William Pitt Ballinger a respected and influential Texas lawyer and statesman. His behind-the-scenes life had a major impact on the development of Texas realty and railroad law, furthering the Confederacy during the Civil War, the Reconstruction in Texas, the emancipation of black slaves, and the industrialization of the South
Jan 21 George Robert Waterhouse an English naturalist. He was a keeper at the department of geology and later curator of the Zoological Society of London's museum
Jan 23 Eugène Marin Labiche a French dramatist.
Jan 29 Edward Lear known now mostly for his literary nonsense in poetry and prose and especially his limericks, a form he popularised. His principal areas of work as an artist were threefold: as a draughtsman employed to illustrate birds and animals; making coloured drawings during his journeys, which he reworked later, sometimes as plates for his travel books; as a illustrator of Alfred Tennyson's poems. As an author, he is known principally for his popular nonsense collections of poems, songs, short stories, botanical drawings, recipes, and alphabets. He also composed and published twelve musical settings of Tennyson's poetry
Jan 29 Jean-Baptiste André Godin a French industrialist, writer and political theorist, and social innovator. A manufacturer of cast-iron stoves and influenced by Charles Fourier, he developed and built an industrial and residential community within Guise called the Familistère. He ultimately converted it to cooperative ownership and management by workers
Jan 30 Asa Gray considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century.
Jan 31 John Bosco an Italian Roman Catholic priest of the Latin Church, educator and writer of the 19th century. While working in Turin, where the population suffered many of the effects of industrialization and urbanization, he dedicated his life to the betterment and education of street children, juvenile delinquents, and other disadvantaged youth. He developed teaching methods based on love rather than punishment, a method that became known as the Salesian Preventive System. A follower of the spirituality and philosophy of Saint Francis de Sales, Bosco dedicated his works to him when he founded the Salesians of Don Bosco, based in Turin. Together with Maria Domenica Mazzarello, he founded the Institute of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, a religious congregation of nuns dedicated to the care and education of poor girls
Feb 3 Karl Theodor Bayrhoffer a German American philosopher and publicist, from 1838 to 1846 professor of philosophy in the University of Marburg.
Feb 5 Anton Mauve a Dutch realist painter who was a leading member of the Hague School. He signed his paintings 'A. Mauve' or with a monogrammed 'A.M.'. A master colorist, he was a very significant early influence on his cousin-in-law Vincent van Gogh
Feb 10 Heinrich Leberecht Fleischer a German Orientalist.
Feb 11 Sarah Elmira Royster an adolescent sweetheart of Edgar Allan Poe who became engaged to him shortly before his death in 1849.
Feb 13 Jean-Baptiste Lamy a French Roman Catholic prelate who served as the first Archbishop of Santa Fe, New Mexico, in the United States. The American writer Willa Cather's novel, Death Comes for the Archbishop, is based on his life and career
Feb 19 John Hewitt Jellett a college head, Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. He was also a priest in the Church of Ireland during the Victorian Era
Feb 19 Lodovico Count Corti born at Gambarana, near Pavia.
Feb 20 François Perrier a French soldier and geodesist.
Feb 22 Jean-Delphin Alard a French violinist and composer. He was the son-in-law of Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume, and had Pablo de Sarasate amongst his students
Feb 22 Anna Kingsford an English anti-vivisection, vegetarian and women's rights campaigner.
Feb 25 Josif Pančić a Serbian botanist, doctor, a famous lecturer at the Great School in Belgrade and the first president of the Serbian Royal Academy. He extensively documented the flora of Serbia, and is credited with having classified many species of plants which were unknown to the botanical community at that time. Pančić is credited for discovering the Serbian Spruce
Mar 4 Amos Bronson Alcott an American teacher, writer, philosopher, and reformer. As an educator, Alcott pioneered new ways of interacting with young students, focusing on a conversational style, and avoided traditional punishment. He hoped to perfect the human spirit and, to that end, advocated a vegan diet before the term was coined. He was also an abolitionist and an advocate for women's rights
Mar 6 Louisa May Alcott an American novelist best known as author of the novel Little Women and its sequels Little Men and Jo's Boys. Raised by her transcendentalist parents, Abigail May and Amos Bronson Alcott in New England, she grew up among many of the well-known intellectuals of the day such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry David Thoreau
Mar 9 William I German Emperor the King of Prussia and the first German Emperor , as well as the first Head of State of a united Germany. Under the leadership of William and his Minister President Otto von Bismarck, Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the establishment of the German Empire. Despite his long support of Bismarck as Minister President, however, William held strong reservations about some of Bismarck's more reactionary policies, including his anti-Catholicism and tough handling of subordinates. Contrary to Bismarck, William was described as polite, gentlemanly, and while a staunch conservative, more open to certain classical liberal ideas than his grandson Wilhelm II
Mar 10 Ciro Pinsuti an Anglo-Italian composer.
Mar 11 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen a German mayor and cooperative pioneer. Several credit union systems and cooperative banks have been named after Raiffeisen, who pioneered rural credit unions
Mar 12 Henry Bergh passed into law by the New York State Legislature. Bergh also prompted the formation, in 1874, of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
Mar 16 Hippolyte Carnot a French statesman.
Mar 23 Morrison Waite an attorney and politician in Ohio. He served as the seventh Chief Justice of the United States from 1874 to his death in 1888. During his tenure, the Supreme Court took a narrow interpretation of federal authority related to laws and amendments that were passed during Reconstruction to expand the rights of freedmen and protect them from attacks by vigilante groups such as the Ku Klux Klan
Mar 26 Barghash bin Said of Zanzibar the second Sultan of Zanzibar. Barghash ruled Zanzibar from October 7, 1870 to March 26, 1888. Barghash is credited with building much of the infrastructure of Stone Town, including piped water, public baths, a police force, roads, parks, hospitals and large administrative buildings such as the House of Wonders. He was perhaps the last Sultan to maintain a measure of true independence from European control. He did consult with European "advisors" who had immense influence, but he was still the central figure they wrestled to control. He crossed wits with diplomats from Britain, America, Germany, France and Portugal and was often able to play one country off another in a skillful endgame of pre-colonial chess. It was his son, Khaled, who while vying for the succession, was the loser in the Shortest War. In 1859 a dispute broke out between the brothers Majid, the first Sultan of Zanzibar, and Barghash. Their sister Sayyida Salme acted as secretary of Barghash's party. However, with the help of an English gunboat the insurrection of Barghash was soon brought to an end, and Barghash was sent into exile in Bombay for two years
Mar 27 Francesco Faà di Bruno an Italian priest and advocate of the poor, and a leading mathematician of his era and a noted religious musician. In 1988 he was beatified by Pope John Paul He is the eponym of Faà di Bruno's formula
Mar 27 Désiré Nisard a French author and literary critic. He was born at Châtillon-sur-Seine
Mar 29 Charles-Valentin Alkan a French composer and pianist. At the height of his fame in the 1830s and 1840s he was, alongside his friends and colleagues Frédéric Chopin and Franz Liszt, among the leading virtuoso pianists in Paris, a city in which he spent virtually his entire life
Mar 31 Jean-Marie Guyau a French philosopher and poet.
Apr 1 Jules Émile Planchon a French botanist born in Ganges, Hérault.
Apr 5 Vsevolod Garshin a Russian author of short stories.
Apr 6 Thomas Green Clemson an American politician and statesman, serving as an ambassador and the United States Superintendent of Agriculture. He served in the Confederate States Army. He founded Clemson University, located in South Carolina
Apr 7 Samuel Polyakov a Russian businessman, informally known as the "most famous railroad king" of the Russian Empire, the senior member of the Polyakov business family, a philanthropist and a Jewish civil rights activist, co-founder of World ORT. Polyakov's business interests concentrated in southern Russia and Ukraine. By the time of his sudden death at the age of 50 he was credited with the construction of one quarter of Russia's railroads, his personal net worth was estimated at 31.4 million roubles
Apr 12 Ludvig Nobel an engineer, a noted businessman and a humanitarian. One of the most prominent members of the Nobel family, he was the son of Immanuel Nobel and the older brother of Alfred Nobel. With his brother Robert, he operated Branobel, an oil company in Baku, Azerbaijan which at one point produced 50% of the world's oil. He is credited with creating the Russian oil industry. Ludvig Nobel built the largest fortune of any of the Nobel brothers and was one of the world's richest men. Following the Bolshevik revolution, the communists confiscated the Nobel family's vast fortune in Russia
Apr 14 Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay a Russian explorer, ethnologist, anthropologist and biologist who became famous as the first scientist to settle among and study people who had never seen a white man.
Apr 14 Johann Konrad Kern a Swiss statesman. He was the first president of the Federal Supreme Court and president of the National Council in 1850–1851. Kernstrasse in Zürich is named for him
Apr 15 Joseph Dietzgen a German socialist philosopher, Marxist and journalist. Joseph was born in Blankenberg in the Rhine Province of Prussia. He was the first of five children of father Johann Gottfried Anno Dietzgen and mother Anna Margaretha Lückerath. He was, like his father, a tanner by profession; inheriting his uncle's business in Siegburg. Entirely self-educated, he developed the notion of dialectical materialism independently from Marx and Engels as an independent philosopher of socialist theory. His publications had major influences on Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Revolution of 1917, which are rarely commented on today. Ludwig Feuerbach's works had a great influence on his early theories. He had one son, Eugene Dietzgen
Apr 15 Matthew Arnold an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools. He was the son of Thomas Arnold, the famed headmaster of Rugby School, and brother to both Tom Arnold, literary professor, and William Delafield Arnold, novelist and colonial administrator. Matthew Arnold has been characterised as a sage writer, a type of writer who chastises and instructs the reader on contemporary social issues
Apr 16 Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski a Polish physicist and chemist.