Died in 1891

Jan 1 Yixuan Prince Chun a Manchu prince and statesman of the late Qing dynasty. He was the father of the dynasty's second-to-last emperor, the Guangxu emperor, and the paternal grandfather of China's last emperor Puyi
Jan 1 Antonio Stoppani an Italian Catholic priest, geologist and palaeontologist.
Jan 4 Joe Hunter (cricketer) a professional cricketer, who played 143 matches for Yorkshire County Cricket Club between 1878 and 1888. Hunter also played five Test matches for England
Jan 4 Pierre de Decker a Belgian Roman Catholic politician, statesman and author.
Jan 4 Antoine Labelle a Roman Catholic priest and the person principally responsible for the settlement of the Laurentians. He is also referred to as "Curé Labelle" and sometimes, the "King of the North"
Jan 5 Emma Abbott an American operatic soprano and impresario known for her pure, clear voice of great flexibility and volume.
Jan 8 Fredrik Pacius a German composer and conductor who lived most of his life in Finland. He has been called the "Father of Finnish music"
Jan 10 Laza Lazarević a Serbian writer, psychiatrist, and neurologist. The primary interest of Lazarević throughout his short life was the science of medicine. In that field he was one of the greatest figures of his time, preeminently distinguished and useful as a doctor, teacher, and both a writer on medical issues and literary themes. To him literature was an avocation; yet he was very good at it and thought of himself as a man of letters
Jan 11 Georges-Eugène Haussmann the Prefect of the Seine Department in France, who was chosen by the Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris, commonly called Haussmann's renovation of Paris. Critics forced his resignation for extravagance, but his vision of the city still dominates Central Paris
Jan 14 Aimé Millet a noted French sculptor, who was born and died in Paris.
Jan 15 John Wellborn Root an American architect who was based in Chicago with Daniel Burnham. He was one of the founders of the Chicago School style. One of his buildings was designated a National Historic Landmark; others have been designated Chicago landmarks and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1958 he received the AIA Gold Medal
Jan 16 Léo Delibes a French composer of ballets, operas, and other works for the stage. His most notable works include ballets Coppélia and Sylvia as well as the operas Le roi l'a dit and Lakmé. He died in Paris from natural causes on 16 January 1891, at the age of 54. He was buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre in Paris
Jan 16 Heinrich Mücke a prominent Realist painter known for his liturgical and genre paintings as well as frescoes, which still adorn some of Germany's ancient castles and cathedrals. His paintings are hung today in Germany's leading museums, including the National Gallery Berlin, Breslau Museum and the Brunn Museum. His son, Karl Mücke, was also a recognized genre painter. Heinrich Mücke was a professor at the Düsseldorf Academy and received the Portuguese Medal for Art and Sciences as well as the Breslau Medal. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting
Jan 17 George Bancroft an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845. He was a senior American diplomat in Europe. Among his best-known writings is the magisterial series, History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent
Jan 17 Johannes Verhulst a Dutch composer and conductor. As a composer mainly of songs and as administrator of Dutch musical life, his influence during his lifetime was considerable
Jan 19 Lockroy a French actor and playwright.
Jan 20 Kalākaua the last reigning king of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. He reigned from February 12, 1874 until his death in San Francisco, California, on January 20, 1891
Jan 21 Calixa Lavallée a French-Canadian-American musician and Union Army officer during the American Civil War who composed the music for O Canada, which officially became the national anthem of Canada in 1980.
Jan 22 Miklós Ybl one of Europe's leading architects in the mid to late nineteenth century as well as Hungary's most influential architect during his career. His most well-known work is the Hungarian State Opera House in Budapest
Jan 23 Friedrich von Schmidt an architect who worked in late 19th century Vienna.
Jan 23 Prince Baudouin of Belgium the first child and eldest son of Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders and his wife, Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
Jan 24 Karl Stauffer-Bern a Swiss painter, etcher and sculptor.
Jan 25 Theo van Gogh (art dealer) a Dutch art dealer. He was the younger brother of Vincent van Gogh, and Theo's unfailing financial and emotional support allowed his brother to devote himself entirely to painting. Theo died at the age of 33, six months after his brother died at the age of 37
Jan 25 Henri de Brouckère a Belgian nobleman and liberal politician. Born in Bruges, he was a magistrate, and a professor at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. His brother Charles was mayor of Brussels
Jan 26 Nikolaus Otto the German engineer of the first internal-combustion engine to efficiently burn fuel directly in a piston chamber. Though the concept of four strokes, with the vital compression of the mixture before ignition, had been invented and patented in 1861 by Alphonse Beau de Rochas, Otto was the first to make it practical
Jan 27 Jervis McEntee an American painter of the Hudson River School. He is a somewhat lesser-known figure of the 19th-century American art world, but was the close friend and traveling companion of several of the important Hudson River School artists. Aside from his paintings, McEntee's journals are an enduring legacy, documenting the life of a New York painter during and after the Gilded Age
Jan 28 Wilhelm Knop a German agrochemist.
Jan 29 William Windom an American politician from Minnesota. He served as U.S. Representative from 1859 to 1869, and as U.S. Senator from 1870 to January 1871, from March 1871 to March 1881, and from November 1881 to 1883. He also served as Secretary of the Treasury from March to November 1881, and from 1889 to 1891. He was a Republican. He was the great-grandfather of the actor named after him, William Windom
Jan 30 Charles Bradlaugh a political activist and one of the most famous English atheists of the 19th century. He founded the National Secular Society in 1866
Jan 30 Grigory Eliseev a Russian journalist, editor, and publisher.
Jan 30 Charles Joshua Chaplin a French painter and printmaker who painted both landscapes and portraits. He was an accomplished artist mastering different techniques such as pastels, lithography, watercolor, chalk, oil painting and etching. He was best known for his elegant portraits of young women
Jan 31 Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier a French Classicist painter and sculptor famous for his depictions of Napoleon, his armies and military themes. He documented sieges and manoeuvres and was the teacher of Édouard Detaille
Feb 2 Leonti Nikolai Pavlovich a Baron, Russian general, member of the Caucasian War and a Catholic convert, taking a name Jean-Louis in the monastic life of the Carthusians.
Feb 8 Charles Wirgman an English artist and cartoonist, the creator of the Japan Punch and illustrator in China and Meiji period Japan for the Illustrated London News.
Feb 9 Johan Jongkind a Dutch painter and printmaker. He painted marine landscapes in a free manner and is regarded as a forerunner of Impressionism
Feb 9 Gonville Bromhead a British Army officer and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to members of the British armed forces. He received the medal for his part in the defence of Rorke's Drift in January 1879 where a small British garrison of 139 soldiers successfully repulsed an assault by some 4,000 Zulu warriors. Bromhead was portrayed by Michael Caine in the film Zulu, which depicted the battle
Feb 10 Sofia Kovalevskaya the first major Russian female mathematician, responsible for important original contributions to analysis, differential equations and mechanics, and the first woman appointed to a full professorship in Northern Europe. She was also one of the first women to work for a scientific journal as an editor
Feb 13 Johannes Groenland a German botanist, horticulturist, and microscopist. He was born April 8, 1824 in Altona, a borough of Hamburg that was part of the Duchy of Holstein at that time. He was the son of Johann Friedrich Grönland, a German organist and music teacher. Groenland was trained in pharmacology in his youth and served as a pharmacist in Altona, Hamburg, and Jena in his early 20s. In 1849 he joined the Schleswig-Holstein army to fight in the First Schleswig War. After the war, Groenland moved to Paris to work as an assistant to Louis de Vilmorin, a French biologist and horticulturist who was also a member of the family firm Vilmorin-Andrieux. While working for Vilmorin, Groenland worked with Theodor Rümpler to prepare the German edition of Les fleurs de pleine terre
Feb 13 David Dixon Porter a United States Navy admiral and a member of one of the most distinguished families in the history of the U.S. Navy. Promoted as the second U.S. Navy officer ever to attain the rank of admiral, after his adoptive brother David Farragut, Porter helped improve the Navy as the Superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy after significant service in the American Civil War
Feb 14 William Tecumseh Sherman an American soldier, businessman, educator and author. He served as a General in the Union Army during the American Civil War , for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States
Feb 16 Karl Maximovich a Russian botanist. Maximovich spent most of his life studying the flora of the countries he had visited in the Far East, and naming many new species. He worked at the Saint Petersburg Botanical Gardens from 1852 as curator of the herbarium collection, becoming Director in 1869
Feb 17 Theophil Hansen a Danish architect who later became an Austrian citizen. He became particularly well known for his buildings and structures in Athens and Vienna, and is considered an outstanding representative of neoclassicism
Feb 18 Henry Hastings Sibley the first Governor of the U.S. state of Minnesota and a U.S. Representative of the Minnesota Territory and the Wisconsin Territory
Feb 18 Thomas Drayton a plantation owner, politician, railroad president, and military officer from Charleston, South Carolina. He served in the United States Army and then as a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War
Feb 21 James Timberlake an American law enforcement officer, Civil War soldier, farmer and rancher who served as a deputy U.S. marshal for the Western District of Missouri. Timberlake is best known for being the chief enforcer and investigator against the James-Younger Gang, beginning in the 1870s, which culminated in the death of the outlaw Jesse James on April 3, 1882, at the hands of Robert Ford
Feb 24 Hermann Winterhalter a German painter, younger brother of the portrait painter Franz Xaver Winterhalter.
Feb 27 Karl Eduard Heusner a Vice-Admiral of the German Imperial Navy.
Feb 28 George Hearst a wealthy American businessman and United States Senator, and the father of newspaperman William Randolph Hearst.
Feb 28 Sanjō Sanetomi an Imperial court noble and statesman at the time of the Meiji Restoration. He held many high-ranking offices in the Meiji government
Feb 28 Giovanni Morelli an Italian art critic and political figure. As an art historian, he developed the "Morellian" technique of scholarship, identifying the characteristic "hands" of painters through scrutiny of diagnostic minor details that revealed artists' scarcely conscious shorthand and conventions for portraying, for example, ears