Died in 1893

Jan 2 John O. Westwood an English entomologist and archaeologist also noted for his artistic talents.
Jan 4 Joseph-Antoine Boullan often accused of being a Satanist although he continued to defend his status as a Christian.
Jan 7 Joseph Stefan a Carinthian Slovene physicist, mathematician, and poet of Austrian citizenship.
Jan 11 Benjamin Butler (politician) a Major General in the Union Army, a American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as the 33rd Governor of Massachusetts.
Jan 15 Fanny Kemble a notable British actress from a theatre family in the early and mid-nineteenth century. She was also a well-known and popular writer, whose published works included plays, poetry, eleven volumes of memoirs, travel writing and works about the theatre. In 1834 she married an American, Pierce Mease Butler, heir to cotton, tobacco and rice plantations on the Sea Islands of Georgia, and to the hundreds of slaves who worked them
Jan 17 Rutherford B. Hayes the 19th President of the United States. As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction, began the efforts that led to civil service reform, and attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction
Jan 22 David Cassel a German historian and Jewish theologian.
Jan 22 Kawatake Mokuami a Japanese dramatist of Kabuki. It has been said that "as a writer of plays of Kabuki origin, he was one of the greatest, if not the greatest, Japan has ever known." He wrote 150 or so plays over the course of his fifty year career, covering a wide variety of themes, styles, and forms, including short dance pieces, period plays , contemporary genre pieces , tragedies and comedies, as well as adaptations of foreign stories, though he is perhaps most famous for his shiranamimono, plays featuring sympathetic or tragic rogues and thieves. For the greater part of his career he wrote under the professional name Kawatake Shinshichi, only taking the name Mokuami on his retirement from the stage in 1881
Jan 23 José Zorrilla a Spanish Romantic poet and dramatist.
Jan 23 Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II an American politician and jurist from Mississippi. A United States Representative and Senator, he also served as United States Secretary of the Interior in the first administration of President Grover Cleveland, as well as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
Jan 23 Henry Francis Blanford a British meteorologist and paleontologist who worked in India. He was a younger brother of the naturalist William Thomas Blanford, both of whom joined the Geological Survey of India in 1855. Henry was the first official meteorologist in India, appointed as Imperial Meteorological Reporter in 1875
Jan 24 Isaac Mayer Dick a Russian Hebraist and novelist.
Jan 26 Hermann Schaaffhausen anatomist, anthropologist, and paleoanthropologist. Hermann Schaaffhausen was the son of Josef Hubert Schaaffhausen and Anna Maria Wachendorf. He studied medicine at the University of Berlin and received his doctorate degree in 1839, and became a Professor of Anatomy at the University of Bonn. Schaaffhausen soon became involved in research in physical anthropology and the study of prehistoric humans in Europe. He is best known for his study of the Neanderthal fossils. He was a member of several scientific societies, including the Naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens located in Bonn, the Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im Rheinlande , and was an honorary member of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte. He became a member of the prestigious Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher on 25 November 1873. Schaafhausen served as co-editor of the influential journal Archiv für Anthropologie. He was also one of the founders of the Rheinischen Landesmuseums located in Bonn. In addition to his scientific activities Schaaffhausen served as president of the Vereins der Rettung zur See. Although Darwin's theory of evolution was not yet published, Schaaffhausen discussed the idea of species evolving in an article titled “Ueber Beständigkeit und Umwandlung der Arten” published in the Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens in which he declared that "the immutability of species...is not proven." Many of his most important anthropological papers were collected and published in a book titled Anthropologische Studien
Jan 26 Abner Doubleday a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. He fired the first shot in defense of Fort Sumter, the opening battle of the war, and had a pivotal role in the early fighting at the Battle of Gettysburg. Gettysburg was his finest hour, but his relief by Maj. Gen. George Meade caused lasting enmity between the two men. In San Francisco, after the war, he obtained a patent on the cable car railway that still runs there. In his final years in New Jersey, he was a prominent member and later president of the Theosophical Society. Doubleday is often mistakenly credited with inventing baseball
Jan 27 James G. Blaine an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the United States House of Representatives from 1863 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the House from 1869 to 1875, and then in the United States Senate from 1876 to 1881. He twice served as United States Secretary of State and unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President in 1876 and 1880 before being nominated in 1884. In the general election, he was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland. Blaine was one of the late 19th century's leading Republicans and champion of the moderate reformist faction of the party known as the "Half-Breeds"
Jan 27 Alfred Belpaire a Belgian locomotive engineer who invented the square-topped Belpaire firebox in 1864.
Jan 28 Gustave Léonard de Jonghe a Belgian painter known for his glamourous society portraits and genre scenes.
Jan 28 Samuel S. Carroll a career officer in the United States Army who rose to the rank of brigadier general during the American Civil War. The Maryland native was most known for his service as the commander of the famed "Gibraltar Brigade," an infantry brigade in the Army of the Potomac that played a key role during the defense of Cemetery Hill during the Battle of Gettysburg, as well as in repulsing a portion of Pickett's Charge
Jan 29 Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma the eldest child and daughter of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France, the eldest daughter of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry and Princess Caroline Ferdinande Louise of the Two Sicilies. Margherita was thus a great-granddaughter of Charles X of France. She was born in Lucca, Duchy of Parma. She was a niece of Henri, comte de Chambord, disputedly King of France and Navarre from 2 to 9 August 1830 and afterwards the Legitimist Pretender to the throne of France from 1844 to 1883. Through her marriage to Carlos, Duke of Madrid, Carlist claimant to the Spanish throne, Margherita was titular Queen consort of Spain, France, and Navarre
Jan 30 Grigory Gagarin a Russian painter, Major General and administrator.
Feb 1 George Henry Sanderson a notable politician of the United States Republican Party. Sanderson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, and traveled to San Francisco during the 1849 Gold Rush in California. He served as the 22nd Mayor of San Francisco from January 5, 1891 to January 3, 1893
Feb 2 Thomas W. Bennett (territorial governor) governor of Idaho Territory from 1871 to 1875. He also served as a Congressional delegate from the territory from March 4, 1875 to June 23, 1876. He also served in the Indiana State Senate
Feb 2 Alexander Nikolayevich Engelhardt a Russian military officer, agricultural scientist and publicist of Narodnik orientation.
Feb 10 Francis Orpen Morris an Irish clergyman, notable as "parson-naturalist" and as the author of many children's books and books on natural history and heritage buildings. He died on 10 February 1893 and was buried at Nunburnholme, East Riding of Yorkshire, England
Feb 18 Serranus Clinton Hastings a 19th-century politician, rancher and a prominent lawyer in the United States. He studied law as a young man and moved to the Iowa District in 1837 to open a law office. Iowa became a territory a year later, and he was elected a member of the House of Representatives of the Iowa Territorial General Assembly. When the territory became the state of Iowa in 1846, he won an election to represent the state in the United States House of Representatives. After his term ended, he became Chief Justice of the Iowa Supreme Court. He resigned after one year in office and moved to California. He was appointed to the California Supreme Court as Chief Justice a few months later. He won an election to be Attorney General of California, and assumed office shortly after his term as Chief Justice ended. He began practicing law again as Attorney General. He earned a small fortune with his law practice and used that fortune to finance his successful real estate venture. In 1878, he founded the Hastings College of the Law with a donation of US$100,000
Feb 20 P. G. T. Beauregard a Louisiana-born American military officer, politician, inventor, writer, civil servant, and the first prominent general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Today he is commonly referred to as G. Beauregard, but he rarely used his first name as an adult. He signed correspondence as T. Beauregard
Feb 24 Karl Anton Eugen Prantl a German botanist.
Mar 4 George Vasey (botanist) an English-born American botanist who collected a lot in Illinois before integrating the United States Department of Agriculture , where he became Chief Botanist and curator of the greatly expanded National Herbarium.
Mar 5 Ali bin Said of Zanzibar the fourth Sultan of Zanzibar. He ruled Zanzibar from February 13, 1890 to March 5, 1893, and was succeeded by his nephew, Hamad bin Thuwaini Al-Busaid
Mar 5 Hippolyte Taine a French critic and historian. He was the chief theoretical influence of French naturalism, a major proponent of sociological positivism and one of the first practitioners of historicist criticism. Literary historicism as a critical movement has been said to originate with him. Taine is particularly remembered for his three-pronged approach to the contextual study of a work of art, based on the aspects of what he called "race, milieu, and moment"
Mar 6 Charles Lebouc a French cellist.
Mar 13 Louis-Nicolas Cabat a French landscape painter.
Mar 14 William Woolls an Australian botanist, clergyman and schoolmaster.
Mar 16 Tivadar Puskás a Hungarian inventor, telephone pioneer, and inventor of the telephone exchange He was also the founder of Telefon Hírmondó.
Mar 17 Jules Ferry a French statesman and republican. He was a promoter of laicism and colonial expansion
Mar 25 Nikolay Alekseyev the elected mayor of Moscow in 1885–1893. Alekseyev is credited with construction of the city's first sanitation system, the first pressurized water supply network reaching individual houses, a psychiatric hospital and 30 new public schools. Alekseyev reorganized the city finances, significantly increasing the share of non-tax revenue from city-owned commercial ventures, and was known for unorthodox and successful fundraising campaigns for the municipal charities. Alekseyev was a long-time sponsor of Moscow Conservatory and local musicians; during his tenure the city acquired the Tretyakov Gallery
Mar 28 Edmund Kirby Smith a career United States Army officer before serving the Confederacy during the American Civil War, and educator in the postwar years. He served as a general in the Confederate States Army, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department after the fall of Vicksburg to the Union Army
Mar 31 Hiram Berdan an American engineer, inventor and military officer, world-renowned marksman, and guiding force behind and commanding colonel of the famed United States Volunteer Sharpshooter Regiments during the American Civil War. He was the inventor of the Berdan rifle, the Berdan centerfire primer and numerous other weapons and accessories
Apr 3 Pedro Diez Canseco a Peruvian soldier and politician who became interim President of Peru on three occasions: 1863, 1865 and 1868. He was the brother of Francisco Diez Canseco, and a great-grandfather of Fernando Belaunde Terry
Apr 4 Alphonse Pyramus de Candolle a French-Swiss botanist, the son of the Swiss botanist P. de Candolle.
Apr 8 August Czartoryski a Prince of the Polish Czartoryski family, born in Paris during the family's exile. A sickly child, he spent much of his youth being shuttled to various health spas. He was accompanied and tutored by a Polish patriot, Father Raphael Kalinowski, a man who was later canonized. Prince August also turned to the priesthood, and after dying at a relatively young age of tuberculosis, was himself beatified, on the path towards becoming a saint
Apr 10 Manuel González Flores a military general and Mexican liberal politician who served as the 31st president of Mexico. Before initiating his presidential career, González played important roles in the French intervention in Mexico as a lieutenant, and later in the Reform War as general, in the service of the Conservative Party. González was also governor of Michoacán and Guanajuato and served as Secretary of National Defense from 1878 to 1879
Apr 11 Avdotya Panaeva a Russian novelist, short story writer, memoirist and literary salon holder. She published much of her work under the pseudonym Stanitsky
Apr 13 Jean Dufresne a German chess player and chess composer. He was a student of Adolf Anderssen, to whom he lost the "Evergreen game" in 1852
Apr 18 Anna Bilińska-Bohdanowicz a Polish painter, known for her portraits. She was born Anna Bilińska, the daughter of a Polish doctor in the formerly fronteer town of Złotopol in the Russian Empire , where she spent her childhood. She lived with her father in Imperial Russia, where her first art teacher was the exiled Michał Elwiro Andriolli, before studying music and art in Warsaw where she became a student of Wojciech Gerson in 1877. During this time, she began to exhibit her work at the Zachęta Society for the Promotion of Fine Arts in Warsaw
Apr 19 Martin Körber a Baltic German pastor, composer, writer and choir leader.
Apr 21 Edward Stanley 15th Earl of Derby a British statesman. He served as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs twice, from 1866 to 1868 and from 1874 to 1878
Apr 22 Chaim Aronson an inventor and memoirist. He was a Lithuanian Jew who lived during the time when Lithuania belonged to Tsarist Russia
Apr 26 Carl Fredrik Nyman a Swedish botanist who was a native of Stockholm. The plant genus Nymania is named in his honor
Apr 27 John Ballance 14th Premier of New Zealand, at the end of the 19th century, and the founder of the Liberal Party, the country's first organised political party.