Born in 1895

Jan 1 J. Edgar Hoover the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. Appointed director of the Bureau of Investigation—predecessor to the FBI—in 1924, he was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director until his death in 1972 at age 77. Hoover is credited with building the FBI into a larger crime-fighting agency, and with instituting a number of modernizations to police technology, such as a centralized fingerprint file and forensic laboratories
Jan 1 Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah the 1st Emir of Kuwait and the Commander of the Military of Kuwait from 29 January 1950 until his death, and the eldest son of Salem Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah. As the eleventh ruler of the al-Sabah dynasty in Kuwait, he took power after the death of his cousin Sheikh Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah. He also ruled as regent upon the death of his father until the election of Sheikh Ahmad
Jan 2 Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, FBA , known as A. Gibb, was a Scottish historian on Orientalism
Jan 2 Folke Bernadotte a Swedish diplomat and nobleman. During World War II he negotiated the release of about 31,000 prisoners from German concentration camps including 450 Danish Jews from the Theresienstadt camp. They were released on 14 April 1945. In 1945, he received a German surrender offer from Heinrich Himmler, though the offer was ultimately rejected
Jan 3 Boris Lyatoshinsky a Ukrainian composer, conductor, teacher. A leading member of the new generation of twentieth-century Ukrainian composers, he was awarded a number of accolades, including the honorary title of People's Artist of the Ukrainian SSR and two Stalin State Prizes
Jan 4 Gustav Klutsis a pioneering photographer and major member of the Constructivist avant-garde in the early 20th century. He is known for the Soviet revolutionary and Stalinist propaganda he produced with his wife and collaborator Valentina Kulagina
Jan 4 Leroy Grumman an American aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and industrialist. In 1929, he co-founded Grumman Aeronautical Engineering Co., later renamed Grumman Aerospace Corporation, and now part of Northrop Grumman
Jan 5 Jeannette Piccard an American high-altitude balloonist, and in later life an Episcopal priest. She held the women's altitude record for nearly three decades, and according to several contemporaneous accounts was regarded as the first woman in space
Jan 7 Hudson Fysh an Australian aviator and businessman. A founder of the Australian airline company Qantas, Fysh was born in Launceston, Tasmania. Serving in the Battle of Gallipoli and Palestine Campaign as a lieutenant of the Australian Light Horse Brigade, Fysh later became an observer and gunner to Paul McGinness in the AFC. He was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross during the aftermath of the war for his services to aerial warfare
Jan 7 Clara Haskil a Romanian classical pianist, renowned as an interpreter of the classical and early romantic repertoire. She was particularly noted for her performances and recordings of Mozart. She was also noted as an interpreter of Beethoven, Schumann, and Scarlatti
Jan 7 Vasili Blokhin a Soviet Russian Major-General who served as the chief executioner of the Stalinist NKVD under the administrations of Genrikh Yagoda, Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria. Hand-picked for the position by Joseph Stalin in 1926, Blokhin led a company of executioners that performed and supervised numerous mass executions during Stalin's reign, mostly during the Great Purge and World War He is recorded as having executed tens of thousands of prisoners by his own hand, including his killing of about 7,000 Polish prisoners of war during the Katyn massacre in spring 1940, making him the most prolific official executioner and mass murderer in recorded world history. Forced into retirement following the death of Stalin, Blokhin died in 1955, officially by suicide
Jan 10 Kadish Luz an Israeli politician who served as Minister of Agriculture between 1955 and 1959 and Speaker of the Knesset from 1959 and 1969.
Jan 11 Laurens Hammond an American engineer and inventor. His inventions include, most famously, the Hammond organ, the Hammond Clock, and the world's first polyphonic musical synthesizer, the Novachord
Jan 12 Yellapragada Subbarow an Indian biochemist who discovered the function of adenosine triphosphate as an energy source in the cell, and developed methotrexate for the treatment of cancer. Most of his career was spent in the United States. Despite his isolation of ATP, Subbarow was denied tenure at Harvard and remained without a green card throughout his life, though he would lead some of America's most important medical research during World War II
Jan 12 Viktor Vinogradov a Soviet linguist and philologist who presided over Soviet linguistics after World War II.
Jan 12 Leo Aryeh Mayer an Israeli scholar of Islamic art and rector of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Jan 13 Jan Burgers a Dutch physicist and the brother of the physicist G. Burgers. Burgers studied in Leiden under Paul Ehrenfest, where he obtained his PhD in 1918. He is credited to be the father of Burgers' equation, the Burgers vector in dislocation theory and the Burgers material in viscoelasticity
Jan 14 Shaikhzada Babich a Bashkir poet, writer and playwright.
Jan 15 Geo Milev a Bulgarian poet, journalist, and translator.
Jan 15 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen a Finnish chemist and recipient of the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Jan 16 T. M. Sabaratnam a Sri Lankan Tamil politician, Member of Legislative Council of Ceylon, Proctor of the Supreme Court. He also served as a member of the Board of Management of the Ramakrishna Mission Ceylon and Chief Trustee and later Honorary President of the Vattapalai Amman Temple Trust
Jan 16 Evripidis Bakirtzis a Hellenic Army officer and politician. Dismissed from the army twice due to his participation in pro-republican coup attempts, during the Axis Occupation of Greece in World War II he co-founded the EKKA resistance group and later joined the Greek People's Liberation Army. He served as head of the Political Committee of National Liberation, a government of Greek Resistance-held territories, from 10 March to 18 April 1944. He died in Fournoi Korseon
Jan 16 Nat Schachner an American author. His first published story was "The Tower of Evil," written in collaboration with Arthur Leo Zagat and appearing in the Summer 1930 issue of Wonder Stories Quarterly. Schachner, who was trained as a lawyer and a chemist, achieved his greatest success writing biographies of early American historical figures, after about a decade of writing science fiction short stories. Schachner was one of Isaac Asimov's favorite authors
Jan 16 Carl Becker (general) a highly decorated Generalleutnant in the Wehrmacht during World War II, who commanded several divisions. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Carl Becker was captured by Soviet troops in Czechoslovakia in 1945 and as held until 1955
Jan 17 John Duff a Canadian racecar driver who won many races and has been inducted in the Canadian Motorsport Hall of Fame. He was one of only two Canadians who raced and won on England’s famous Brooklands Motor Course. The other, Kay Petre, is already an honoured member of the CMHF. Duff was the first Canadian to race in the legendary 24 Hours of Le Mans. To date, he is the only Canadian to win the overall classification at Le Mans
Jan 17 Mikhail Rushchinsky a Soviet football player and manager.
Jan 19 Arthur Coningham (RAF officer) a senior officer in the Royal Air Force. During the First World War, he was at Gallipoli with the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, was discharged in New Zealand as medically unfit for active service, and journeyed to England at his own expense to join the Royal Flying Corps, where he became a flying ace. Coningham was later a senior Royal Air Force commander during the Second World War, as Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief 2nd Tactical Air Force and subsequently the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Flying Training Command
Jan 19 Ivan Orlov (aviator) a Russian flying ace during World War He was a prewar flier, having built both gliders and an airplane, and having earned pilot's license 229 just prior to start of the war. He volunteered his experience and his personal airplane to his country's military service. His experience and his valor made him both a mentor and leader of less experienced pilots, as Orlov rose to command the 7th Aviatsionniy Ostryad Istrebitelei of the Imperial Russian Air Service. After an exchange duty assignment to the Escadrille 3, Aéronautique Militaire, he wrote the first Russian text on aerial combat, Ways to Conduct an Air Combat. He was killed in action after scoring five confirmed aerial victories
Jan 19 Isamu Chō an officer in the Imperial Japanese Army known for his support of ultranationalist politics and involvement in a number of attempted military and right-wing coup d'états in pre-World War II Japan.
Jan 20 Gábor Szegő a Hungarian mathematician. He was one of the foremost analysts of his generation and made fundamental contributions to the theory of Toeplitz matrices and orthogonal polynomials
Jan 20 Desiderius Hampel a SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS during World War II who commanded the 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar and was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.
Jan 20 Ivan Vasilenko a Russian Soviet author of children's books.
Jan 21 Daniel Chalonge a French astronomer and astrophysicist. He was born in Grenoble and studied in Paris under Charles Fabry. Chalonge worked as an astronomer at the Observatoire de Paris, the Observatoire d'Haute Provence and the Swiss Jungfraujoch Scientific Station. One of the founders of the Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, his studies included the stellar spectrum of hydrogen, stellar photometry and classification, and measurement of the ozone layer. Chalonge developed a microphotometer, which was subsequently named after him. Between 1936 and 1982 he authored over 90 scientific papers
Jan 21 Virgilio Marchi an Italian architect and art director. He designed the sets for more than fifty films during his career. Marchi was stylistically identified with the Futurist movement
Jan 21 Cristóbal Balenciaga a Spanish Basque fashion designer and the founder of the Balenciaga fashion house.
Jan 22 Plínio Salgado a Brazilian politician, writer, journalist, and theologian. He founded and led the Brazilian Integralist Action, a far-right political party inspired on the Italian Fascist movement
Jan 24 Eugen Roth a German lyricist and poet, he wrote mostly humorous verse.
Jan 25 Nikolay Pukhov Pavlovich Pukhov - Soviet military commander during World War II, Colonel General. He was the first commander of the 8th Tank Army and served as commander of the Odessa Military District, 1948-1951 and the North Caucasus Military District, 1953-1953. During the war he received the highest number of 1-rank awards for the exceptional direction of combat operations: three times Order of Suvorov, twice Order of Kutuzov, and Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky. He was also a Gold Star Hero of the Soviet Union , four times Order of Lenin and three times Order of the Red Banner
Jan 25 Paolo Marella an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served in the Roman Curia following a career as a delegate of the Holy See, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1959
Jan 27 Stepan Klochurak the Prime Minister of the short lived Hutsul Republic in 1919. In 1939, in the same general area, he was the Minister of Defense of Carpatho-Ukraine
Jan 27 Joseph Rosenstock a Polish Jewish conductor.
Jan 27 Harry Ruby a Jewish American composer and screenwriter, who was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970.
Jan 29 Dumitru D. Roșca a Romanian philosopher, professor and member of the Romanian Academy.
Jan 29 Muna Lee (writer) about the Puerto Rico-based writer. For the American athlete, see Muna Lee
Jan 30 Ivan Vasilyevich Smirnov a Russian World War I flying ace. He was born to a poor peasant family, but through courage and good fortune managed to become an officer in the Imperial Russian Air Service. After surviving extremely dangerous infantry combat, he trained as a pilot, and was subsequently credited with 11 aerial victories during World War When the October Revolution ended his participation in the war, he deserted and became an itinerant pilot. He would serve short spells in the Royal Air Force, the Volunteer Army of Anton Denikin, Handley Page and SNETA. The Russian emigre subsequently piloted for KLM for the next 25 years, pioneering air routes to Dutch East Indies in the process. In December 1941, Smirnov returned to military flying during the frenzied air evacuation of Dutch nationals. After the Dutch West Indies were overrun by the Japanese, he joined the U.S. Air Transport Command. Despite official attempts to ground the aged and oft wounded pilot, he served through war's end. He then returned to KLM. After the inevitable grounding , he continued with the company as its chief advisor. He died in Palma, Majorca on 28 October 1956
Jan 30 Wilhelm Gustloff the founder of the Swiss NSDAP/AO at Davos. He remained its leader from 1932, until he was assassinated in 1936
Feb 1 Conn Smythe a Canadian businessman, soldier and sportsman in ice hockey and horse racing. He is best known as the principal owner of the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League from 1927 to 1961 and as the builder of Maple Leaf Gardens. As owner of the Leafs during numerous championship years, his name appears on the Stanley Cup eight times: 1932, 1942, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1962
Feb 1 Vasily Molokov a Soviet aircraft pilot, major general of aviation , and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Feb 1 Francelia Billington an early American silent-screen actress, and an accomplished camera operator.
Feb 2 Robert Philipp an American painter influenced by Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, and known for his nudes, still lifes, and portraits of attractive women and Hollywood stars. Noted art critic Henry McBride called Philipp one of America's top six painters of his generation. He was an instructor of painting at the Art Students League of New York for 33 years, the American artist Itshak Holtz was a student of Philipp. Philipp was Secretary of the National Academy of Design, and National Academician, Benjamin Franklin Fellow, Royal Society of Arts in London. He was married to model and fellow artist Rochelle Post, who frequently posed for him until her death in 1971. His compositions and painting style have been compared to the art of Edgar Degas and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Philip won prizes in most of the important exhibitions of his time, and his paintings are in numerous museums and important private collections