Died in 1900

Jan 3 Dmitry Grigorovich a Russian writer, artist, and art critic.
Jan 13 Peter Waage a significant Norwegian chemist and professor at the Royal Frederick University. Along with his brother-in-law Cato Maximilian Guldberg, he co-discovered and developed the law of mass action between 1864 and 1879
Jan 15 Heinrich von Rustige a German painter specializing in historical subjects and genres.
Jan 18 Frederick Heiden a general of infantry in the Imperial Russian Army. He served as the Governor-General of Finland 1881–1898. Count van Heiden's 17-year office in the Grand Duchy of Finland encompassed the entire reign of Alexander III of Russia, who appointed him at the start of his own reign, to succeed the courtly and diplomatic Count Nikolay Adlerberg, and four first years of reign of Nicholas II of Russia
Jan 20 John Ruskin the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, also an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects ranging from geology to architecture, myth to ornithology, literature to education, and botany to political economy. His writing styles and literary forms were equally varied. Ruskin penned essays and treatises, poetry and lectures, travel guides and manuals, letters and even a fairy tale. The elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art was later superseded by a preference for plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively. In all of his writing, he emphasised the connections between nature, art and society. He also made detailed sketches and paintings of rocks, plants, birds, landscapes, and architectural structures and ornamentation
Jan 21 Liver-Eating Johnson a mountain man of the American Old West.
Jan 22 David Edward Hughes a Welsh-American scientist and musician. Hughes invented the first working radio communication system, the first semiconductor diode crystal radio receiver, the first printing telegraph, and the first microphone. He was also a harpist, and a professor of music
Jan 25 Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg a niece of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. She was the second daughter of Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Princess Feodora of Leiningen, older half-sister of the British queen. She is a matrillineal ancestor of Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and Felipe VI of Spain
Jan 31 John Douglas 9th Marquess of Queensberry a Scottish nobleman, remembered for lending his name and patronage to the "Marquess of Queensberry Rules" that formed the basis of modern boxing and for his role in the downfall of author and playwright Oscar Wilde. He was notorious for his abuse, immorality, and his reputation as a lunatic
Feb 1 Bernard Altum a German Catholic priest, zoologist, and forest scientist.
Feb 6 Pyotr Lavrov a prominent Russian theorist of narodism, philosopher, publicist, and sociologist.
Feb 11 Émile Blanchard a French zoologist and entomologist.
Feb 14 Giovanni Canestrini an Italian naturalist and biologist who was a native of Revò.
Feb 15 Robert Luther a German astronomer who searched for asteroids while working in Düsseldorf. He discovered 24 of them
Feb 15 Adrien René Franchet a French botanist, based at the Paris Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.
Feb 18 Clinton L. Merriam a United States Representative from New York.
Feb 18 Eugenio Beltrami an Italian mathematician notable for his work concerning differential geometry and mathematical physics. His work was noted especially for clarity of exposition. He was the first to prove consistency of non-Euclidean geometry by modeling it on a surface of constant curvature, the pseudosphere, and in the interior of an n-dimensional unit sphere, the so-called Beltrami–Klein model. He also developed singular value decomposition for matrices, which has been subsequently rediscovered several times. Beltrami's use of differential calculus for problems of mathematical physics indirectly influenced development of tensor calculus by Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro and Tullio Levi-Civita
Feb 20 Washakie a renowned warrior first mentioned in 1840 in the written record of the American fur trapper, Osborne Russell. In 1851, at the urging of trapper Jim Bridger, Washakie led a band of Shoshones to the council meetings of the Treaty of Fort Laramie. Essentially from that time until his death, he was considered the head of the Eastern Shoshones by the representatives of the United States government
Feb 20 William Holbrook Beard an American painter.
Feb 21 Charles Piazzi Smyth Astronomer Royal for Scotland from 1846 to 1888, well known for many innovations in astronomy and his pyramidological and metrological studies of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Feb 21 Marthinus Nikolaas Ras considered the father of South African Artillery.
Feb 23 Rafaela Ybarra de Vilallonga a member of Bilbao's 19th century wealthy gentry and mother to seven children who - with the approval of her husband José Vilallonga - founded the Congregación de los Santos Angeles Custodios. She was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1984 and is currently undergoing the canonization process
Feb 23 Ernest Dowson an English poet, novelist, and short-story writer, often associated with the Decadent movement.
Mar 1 Frederick Carter a lawyer and Premier of Newfoundland from 1865 to 1870. He was son of Peter Weston Carter and great-grandson of Robert Carter, who was then appointed justice of the peace at Ferryland in 1750. In 1855, he was elected to the House of Assembly as a Conservative and was Speaker from 1861 until 1865. In 1865 he succeeded Sir Hugh Hoyles as Premier
Mar 3 Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Rümker a German astronomer.
Mar 6 Gottlieb Daimler now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development. He invented the high-speed petrol engine
Mar 7 August Silberstein an Austrian writer, born in Ofen, Budapest. Silberstein was educated at the University of Vienna and supported the 1848 revolts in Austria-Hungary with his articles in the German satire periodical Leuchtkugeln, which was banned in the middle of 1851. As a result, Silbertein was forced to leave his home
Mar 10 Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann a Danish composer.
Mar 13 Catherine Wolfe Bruce a noted American philanthropist and patroness of astronomy.
Mar 13 Henri Didon a French Dominican writer, and educator, and reputedly the greatest French preacher of his day.
Mar 15 Robert von Puttkamer a Prussian statesman, most prominent in his roles as Prussian minister of public education and worship in 1879 and then as interior minister in 1881, under his brother-in-law Otto von Bismarck. He also introduced reforms in German orthography
Mar 15 Elwin Bruno Christoffel a German mathematician and physicist.
Mar 18 António Nobre a Portuguese poet. His masterpiece Só , was the only book he published
Mar 19 John Bingham an American Republican congressman from the U.S. state of Ohio, judge advocate in the trial of the Abraham Lincoln assassination and a prosecutor in the impeachment trials of Andrew Johnson. He is also the principal framer of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Mar 19 Charles-Louis Hanon a French piano pedagogue and composer. He is best known for his work The Virtuoso Pianist in 60 Exercises, which has become the most widely used set of exercises in modern piano teaching. He was born in Renescure, France in 1819, and died in Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1900
Mar 20 Zealous Bates Tower an American soldier and civil engineer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was most noted for constructing the solid defenses of Federal-occupied Nashville, Tennessee, which proved to withstand repeated attacks by the Confederates
Mar 23 Nikolaus Dumba an Austrian industrialist and liberal politician of Greek descent. He is considered to have been an important patron of the arts and music
Mar 24 Wilhelm Heinrich Waagen a geologist and paleontologist. He was born in Munich and died in Vienna
Mar 28 Vincent Count Benedetti a French diplomat. He is probably best known as one of the central figures in the instigation of the Franco-Prussian War
Mar 28 Piet Joubert Commandant-General of the South African Republic from 1880 to 1900.
Mar 28 Apollinary Goravsky a Belarusian painter.
Mar 29 Cyrus K. Holliday one of the founders of the township of Topeka, Kansas, in the mid 19th century; and was Adjutant General of Kansas during the American Civil War. The title Colonel, however, was honorary. He was the first president of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, as well as one of the railroad's directors for nearly 40 years, up to 1900. A number of railway locomotives have been named after him
Apr 5 Osman Nuri Pasha an Ottoman field marshal and the hero of the Siege of Plevna in 1877. Although unsuccessful in defending the city, he was awarded the title Gazi as a result of that siege
Apr 5 Joseph Louis François Bertrand a French mathematician who worked in the fields of number theory, differential geometry, probability theory, economics and thermodynamics.
Apr 7 Frederic Edwin Church an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. He was a central figure in the Hudson River School of American landscape painters, perhaps best known for painting large panoramic landscapes, often depicting mountains, waterfalls, and sunsets, but also sometimes depicting dramatic natural phenomena that he saw during his travels to the Arctic and Central and South America. Church's paintings emphasis on light and a romantic respect for natural detail. In his later years, Church painted classical Mediterranean and Middle Eastern scenes and cityscapes
Apr 9 Jovan Đorđević a Serbian man of letters, the co-founder of the Novi Sad Serbian National Theatre in 1861; the National Theatre in Belgrade in 1868; and the Academy of Dramatic Art in 1870. He is famous for writing the lyrics to the Serbian National anthem Bože pravde in 1872
Apr 10 Frank Hamilton Cushing an American anthropologist and ethnologist. His pioneering studies of the Zuni Indians of New Mexico by entering into their culture helped establish participant observation as a common anthropological research strategy
Apr 11 Seth Barton a United States Army officer and, then, a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He later became noted as a chemist
Apr 16 Dankmar Adler a celebrated German-born American architect.
Apr 20 Alexandre Falguière a French sculptor and painter.