1903 in history

1903 events chronologically

Jan 4 Topsy, an elephant, is electrocuted by the owners of Luna Park, Coney Island. Thomas Edison's movie company filmed the execution
Jan 9 Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson, son of the poet Alfred Tennyson, becomes the second Governor-General of Australia
Jan 17 El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico becomes part of the United States National Forest System as the Luquillo Forest Reserve
Jan 18 President Theodore Roosevelt sends a radio message to King Edward VII: the first transatlantic radio transmission originating in the United States
Feb 11 Anton Bruckner's 9th Symphony receives its first performance in Vienna, Austria
Feb 14 The United States Department of Commerce and Labor is established (later split into the Department of Commerce and the Department of Labor)
Feb 23 Cuba leases Guantánamo Bay to the United States "in perpetuity"

Top 7 most famous people born in 1903

May 3 Bing Crosby an American singer and actor. Crosby's trademark bass-baritone voice made him one of the best-selling recording artists of the 20th century, with over half a billion records in circulation
Jun 6 Aram Khachaturian a Soviet Armenian composer and conductor. He is considered one of the leading Soviet composers
Jun 22 John Dillinger an American gangster and bank robber in the Depression-era United States. His gang robbed two dozen banks and four police stations. Dillinger escaped from jail twice; he was also charged with, but never convicted of, the murder of an East Chicago, Indiana police officer who shot Dillinger in his bullet-proof vest during a shootout, prompting him to return fire. It was Dillinger's only homicide charge
Jun 25 George Orwell an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic. His work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, and commitment to democratic socialism
Jul 2 Alec Douglas-Home a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister from October 1963 to October 1964. He is notable for being the last Prime Minister to hold office while being a member of the House of Lords, prior to renouncing his peerage and taking up a seat in the House of Commons for the remainder of his premiership. His reputation, however, rests more on his two spells as the UK's foreign minister than on his brief premiership
Sep 11 Theodor W. Adorno a German sociologist, philosopher and musicologist known for his critical theory of society.
Dec 28 John von Neumann a Hungarian and American pure and applied mathematician, physicist, inventor and polymath. He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics , physics , economics , computing , and statistics. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics, in the development of functional analysis, a principal member of the Manhattan Project and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton , and a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor, and the digital computer

Top 7 most famous people died in 1903

Apr 28 Josiah Willard Gibbs an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous deductive science. Together with James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann, he created statistical mechanics , explaining the laws of thermodynamics as consequences of the statistical properties of large ensembles of particles. Gibbs also worked on the application of Maxwell's equations to problems in physical optics. As a mathematician, he invented modern vector calculus
May 8 Paul Gauguin a French Post-Impressionist artist who was not well appreciated until after his death. Gauguin was later recognized for his experimental use of color and synthetist style that were distinguishably different from Impressionism. His work was influential to the French avant-garde and many modern artists, such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. Gauguin’s art became popular after his death and many of his paintings were in the possession of Russian collector Sergei Shchukin. He was an important figure in the Symbolist movement as a painter, sculptor, print-maker, ceramist, and writer. His bold experimentation with coloring led directly to the Synthetist style of modern art, while his expression of the inherent meaning of the subjects in his paintings, under the influence of the cloisonnist style, paved the way to Primitivism and the return to the pastoral. He was also an influential proponent of wood engraving and woodcuts as art forms
Jul 17 James Abbott McNeill Whistler an American-born, British-based artist active during the American Gilded Age. Averse to sentimentality and moral allusion in painting, he was a leading proponent of the credo "art for art's sake". His famous signature for his paintings was in the shape of a stylized butterfly possessing a long stinger for a tail. The symbol was apt, for it combined both aspects of his personality—his art was characterized by a subtle delicacy, while his public persona was combative. Finding a parallel between painting and music, Whistler entitled many of his paintings "arrangements", "harmonies", and "nocturnes", emphasizing the primacy of tonal harmony. His most famous painting is "Arrangement in Grey and Black 1" , commonly known as Whistler's Mother, the revered and oft-parodied portrait of motherhood. Whistler influenced the art world and the broader culture of his time with his artistic theories and his friendships with leading artists and writers
Jul 20 Pope Leo XIII born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci to an Italian comital family, reigned from 20 February 1878 to his death in 1903. He was the oldest pope , and had the third longest pontificate, behind that of Pius IX and Pope John Paul He is the most recent pontiff to date to take the pontifical name of "Leo" upon being elected to the pontificate
Aug 22 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil 3rd Marquess of Salisbury a British Conservative statesman and thrice Prime Minister, serving for a total of over 13 years. The first British Prime Minister of the 20th century, he was the last Prime Minister to head his full administration from the House of Lords
Nov 1 Theodor Mommsen a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist and writer generally regarded as one of the greatest classicists of the 19th century. His work regarding Roman history is still of fundamental importance for contemporary research. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902 for being "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome." He was also a prominent German politician, as a member of the Prussian and German parliaments. His works on Roman law and on the law of obligations had a significant impact on the German civil code
Dec 8 Herbert Spencer an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.