Died in 1912

Jan 2 Henri Rouart a French industrialist, impressionist painter, and art collector.
Jan 3 Felix Dahn a German nationalist and anti-semitic lawyer, author and historian.He was also known for writing nationalist poetry.
Jan 4 Mario Rapisardi an Italian poet, supporter of Risorgimento and member of the Scapigliatura.
Jan 4 Clarence Dutton an American geologist and US Army officer. Dutton was born in Wallingford, Connecticut on May 15, 1841. He graduated from Yale College in 1860 and took postgraduate courses there until 1862, when he enlisted in the 21st Connecticut Volunteers; he fought at Fredericksburg, Suffolk, Nashville and Petersburg
Jan 8 Friedrich Schrempf an editor and member of the German Reichstag.
Jan 12 Théophile Alexis Durand a Belgian botanist.
Jan 14 Otto Liebmann a German philosopher.
Jan 15 Henry Labouchère an English politician, writer, publisher and theatre owner in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. He lived with the actress Henrietta Hodson from 1868, and they married in 1887
Jan 16 Georg Heym a German writer. He is particularly known for his poetry, representative of early Expressionism
Jan 16 Alfred Jules Émile Fouillée a French philosopher.
Jan 18 Hermann Winkelmann a German Heldentenor, notable for creating the title role in Richard Wagner's Parsifal in 1882.
Jan 24 James Allen (author) a British philosophical writer known for his inspirational books and poetry and as a pioneer of the self-help movement. His best known work, As a Man Thinketh, has been mass-produced since its publication in 1902. It has been a source of inspiration to motivational and self-help authors
Jan 24 Theodor Piderit a German writer.
Jan 25 Dmitry Milyutin Minister of War and the last Field Marshal of Imperial Russia. He was responsible for sweeping military reforms that changed the face of the Russian army in the 1860s and 1870s
Jan 28 Gustave de Molinari a political economist and classical liberal theorist born in Belgium associated with French laissez-faire economists such as Frédéric Bastiat and Hippolyte Castille. Living in Paris, in the 1840s, he took part in the Ligue pour la Liberté des Échanges , animated by Frédéric Bastiat. On his death bed in 1850, Bastiat described Molinari as the continuator of his works. In 1849, shortly after the revolutions of the previous year, Molinari published two works: an essay, "The Production of Security", and a book, Les Soirées de la Rue Saint-Lazare, describing how a market in justice and protection could advantageously replace the state
Jan 28 Eloy Alfaro José Eloy Alfaro Delgado served as President of Ecuador from 1895 to 1901 and from 1906 to 1911. He became one of the strongest opponents of pro-Catholic conservative President Gabriel Garcia Moreno. For his central role in the Liberal Revolution of 1895 and for having fought conservatism for almost 30 years, he is known as the Viejo Luchador
Jan 29 Alexander Duff 1st Duke of Fife a British peer who married Princess Louise, the third child and eldest daughter of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark.
Jan 29 Herman Bang a Danish author, one of the men of the Modern Breakthrough.
Feb 4 Franz Reichelt remembered for jumping to his death from the Eiffel Tower while testing a wearable parachute of his own design. Reichelt had become fixated on developing a suit for aviators that would convert into a parachute and allow them to survive a fall should they be forced to leave their aircraft. Initial experiments conducted with dummies dropped from the fifth floor of his apartment building had been successful, but he was unable to replicate those early successes with any of his subsequent designs
Feb 7 Edward Wilmot Blyden an educator, writer, diplomat, and politician primarily in Liberia born in the West Indies, he joined the free black immigrants to the region from the United States; he also taught for five years in Sierra Leone in the early 20th century. His writings on pan-Africanism were influential in both colonies, which were started during the slavery years for the resettlement of free blacks from the United States and Great Britain. His writings attracted attention in the sponsoring countries as well. He felt that Zionism was a model for what he called Ethiopianism, and that African Americans could "return" to Africa and redeem Later he supported Islam
Feb 8 Wilhelm von Hahnke a Prussian Field Marshal.
Feb 10 Joseph Lister 1st Baron Lister a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery. By applying Louis Pasteur's advances in microbiology, he promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid to sterilise surgical instruments and to clean wounds, which led to a reduction in post-operative infections and made surgery safer for patients
Feb 11 Şayeste Hanımefendi the wife of Sultan Abdülmecid She was the adoptive mother of Sultan Mehmed VI, the last sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Feb 12 Gerhard Armauer Hansen a Norwegian physician, remembered for his identification of the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae in 1873 as the causative agent of leprosy.
Feb 14 Mathurin Moreau a French sculptor in the academic style.
Feb 16 Nicholas of Japan a Russian Orthodox priest, monk, bishop, and saint. He introduced the Eastern Orthodox Church to Japan. The Orthodox cathedral of Tokyo , Tokyo Resurrection Cathedral, was informally named after him as Nikorai-do, first by the local community, and today nationwide, in remembrance of his work
Feb 17 Edgar Evans a member of the "Polar Party" in Robert Falcon Scott's ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition to the South Pole in 1911–1912. This group of five men, personally selected for the final expedition push, attained the Pole on 17 January 1912; but all of them, including Evans, perished as they attempted to return to their base camp
Feb 17 Count Alois Lexa von Aehrenthal an Austrian diplomat. He engineered the Bosnian crisis of 1908: His major accomplishment was the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 on the basis of a secret agreement with Russian foreign minister Alexander Izvolsky, which appeared to be a triumph for Austria. "It was, however, one of those pyrrhic victories, which seem brilliant at the moment, but which bring more misfortune than success, if looked at from a longer perspective". It stirred deep resentment in Serbia and Russia, caused the rest of Europe to distrust Austrian diplomacy, and was one of the factors that helped bring about World War I
Feb 19 Karl Zenger a German figure skater.
Feb 21 Osborne Reynolds a prominent innovator in the understanding of fluid dynamics. Separately, his studies of heat transfer between solids and fluids brought improvements in boiler and condenser design. He spent his entire career at what is now called University of Manchester
Feb 22 Richard Andree was, like his father Karl Andree, a German geographer noted for devoting himself especially to ethnography. He wrote numerous books on this subject, dealing notably with the races of his own country, while an important general work was Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche
Feb 25 William IV Grand Duke of Luxembourg reigned as the sovereign Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 17 November 1905 until his death. He succeeded his father, Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. He also held the titular title of Duke of Nassau
Feb 26 Bernardino Caballero the President of Paraguay from 1881 until 1886 and founder of the Colorado Party.
Mar 1 Pyotr Lebedev a Russian physicist. His name was also transliterated as Peter Lebedew and Peter Lebedev
Mar 1 George Grossmith an English comedian, writer, composer, actor, and singer. His performing career spanned more than four decades. As a writer and composer, he created 18 comic operas, nearly 100 musical sketches, some 600 songs and piano pieces, three books and both serious and comic pieces for newspapers and magazines
Mar 1 Ludvig Holstein-Ledreborg a Danish politician, a descendant of Johan Ludvig Holstein-Ledreborg, who was Minister of State of Denmark. He was Council President of Denmark for two months, from 16 August to 28 October 1909, as the leader of the Cabinet of Holstein-Ledreborg. He also served as Defence Minister of Denmark from 18 October to 28 October 1909. He also took over the Ledreborg mansion after his father's death in 1895
Mar 2 Vilém Mrštík a Czech writer known for his novel Santa Lucia. With his brother, Alois he also wrote the drama Maryša. This play, set in rural Moravia, explored gender roles and tradition in a small village. In contrast to the more positive renderings of rural life by the writers of the National Revival, the brothers attempted a more impartial view of life in the countryside
Mar 3 Oskar Enkvist an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy, noted for his role in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905.
Mar 5 Rochus von Liliencron a Germanist and historian, known for his collection of German Volkslieder , published in five volumes in 1865-1869, and as the editor of the biographical reference work Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, published 1875-1912.
Mar 6 August Toepler a German physicist known for his experiments in electrostatics.
Mar 11 Lee Shelton an American criminal who became a figure of folklore after murdering Billy Lyons on Christmas 1895. The murder, reportedly motivated partially by the theft of Shelton's Stetson hat, made Shelton an icon of toughness and style in the minds of early folk and blues musicians, and inspired the popular folk song "Stagger Lee". The story endures in the many versions of the song that have circulated since the late 19th century
Mar 12 Cesare Arzelà recognized for his contributions in the theory of functions, particularly for his characterization of sequences of continuous functions, generalizing the one given earlier by Giulio Ascoli in the famous Arzelà-Ascoli theorem.
Mar 13 Hugo Treffner the founder and first director of the Hugo Treffner Gymnasium in Tartu, and an important figure in the Estonian national awakening.
Mar 13 Eugène-Étienne Taché a French Canadian surveyor, civil engineer, illustrator and architect. He devised Quebec's provincial coat-of-arms and motto Je me souviens
Mar 13 Nishi Tokujirō a statesman and diplomat in Meiji period Japan.
Mar 16 Lawrence Oates an English cavalry officer with the 6th Dragoons, and later an Antarctic explorer, who died during the Terra Nova Expedition. Oates, afflicted with gangrene and frostbite, walked from his tent into a blizzard. His death is seen as an act of self-sacrifice when, aware that his ill health was compromising his three companions' chances of survival, he chose certain death
Mar 16 Elizabeth Forbes (artist) one of her most popular works. She was friends with the artists James Abbott McNeill Whistler and Walter Sickert, both of whom influenced her work. Her etchings in particular are said to show the influence of Whistler
Mar 17 Anna Filosofova a Russian philanthropist and feminist. She was an important charity organiser, and, alongside Maria Trubnikova and Nadezhda Stasova , was one of the founders and leaders of the first organised Russian women's movement
Mar 17 George W. Melville an engineer, Arctic explorer and author. As chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering, he headed a time of great expansion, technological progress and change, often in defiance of the conservative element of the Navy hierarchy. He superintended the design of 120 ships and introduced the water-tube boiler, the triple-screw propulsion system, vertical engines, the floating repair ship, and the "distilling ship." Appointed Engineer in Chief of the Navy, Melville reformed the service entirely, putting Navy engineers on a professional rather than an artisan footing
Mar 21 Andrew Archibald Macdonald one of the fathers of Canadian Confederation.