Died in 1918

Jan 1 Bidar Kadınefendi the fourth wife of 34th Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II and the mother of Naime Sultan and Şehzade Mehmed Abdul Kadir Efendi of the Ottoman Empire. Her marriage served an alliance between the Ottomans and the buffer state
Jan 1 Oskar Kallis one of the main representatives of the Estonian national romanticism. He studied in 1907 and 1913 to 1916 in the studio of the artist Ants Laikmaa, and in 1912-1913 studied design at the Estonian Artist Society. He participated in 1917 in the establishment of the artistic association Vikerla. He was particularly influenced by the Finnish painter Akseli Gallen-Kallela, he devoted himself especially in his short career to the illustration the Estonian national epic Kalevipoeg, creating about 40 works. He also designed ethnographically styled furniture and textiles. He died of tuberculosis in the Crimea in 1918
Jan 1 William Wilfred Campbell a Canadian poet. He is often classed as one of the country's Confederation Poets, a group that included fellow Canadians Charles G.D. Roberts, Bliss Carman, Archibald Lampman, and Duncan Campbell Scott; he was a colleague of Lampman and Scott. By the end of the 19th century, he was considered the "unofficial poet laureate of Canada." Although not as well known as the other Confederation poets today, Campbell was a "versatile, interesting writer" who was influenced by Robert Burns, the English Romantics, Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Thomas Carlyle, and Alfred Tennyson. Inspired by these writers, Campbell expressed his own religious idealism in traditional forms and genres
Jan 6 Georg Cantor a German mathematician, best known as the inventor of set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of one-to-one correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and well-ordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are "more numerous" than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor's method of proof of this theorem implies the existence of an "infinity of infinities". He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest, a fact of which he was well aware
Jan 7 Julius Wellhausen a German biblical scholar and orientalist, noted particularly for his contribution to scholarly understanding of the origin of the Pentateuch/Torah. He is credited with being one of the originators of the documentary hypothesis
Jan 7 Paul François Grossetti a French Army general during World War I.
Jan 7 Andrei Ivanovich Shingarev a Russian doctor, publicist and politician. He was a Duma deputy and one of the leaders of the Constitutional Democratic party
Jan 8 Johannes Pääsuke an Estonian photographer and filmmaker.
Jan 9 Charles-Émile Reynaud a French inventor, responsible for the first projected animated cartoons. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the Théâtre Optique in December 1888, and on 28 October 1892 he projected the first animated film in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musée Grévin in Paris. This is also notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used
Jan 13 James H. Brady a Republican politician from Idaho. He served as the state's eighth governor from 1909 to 1911 and a United States Senator for nearly five years, from 1913 until his death
Jan 14 Bernhard Weiss a German Protestant New Testament scholar. He was the father of Johannes Weiss
Jan 15 Bill McDonald (Texas Ranger) a Texas Ranger who served briefly as a bodyguard for both U.S. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, opponents, along with incumbent President William Howard Taft, in the bitter 1912 United States presidential election
Jan 15 Wojciech Kętrzyński a historian and the director of the Ossolineum Library in Lviv, Austrian Empire. He focused on Polish history at a time when no independent Polish state existed. He was the father of Stanisław Kętrzyński
Jan 16 Ethel Sargant a British botanist.
Jan 17 Louise Héritte-Viardot a French singer, pianist and composer. She was born in Paris, the daughter of Pauline Viardot-Garcia and Louis Viardot, niece of Maria Malibran and sister to composer and conductor Paul Viardot
Jan 18 Jurgis Bielinis one of the main organizers of illegal book-smuggling at the time of the Lithuanian press ban. He was also a publicist and contributor to Lithuanian newspapers Aušra and Varpas. Bielinis used pseudonyms Bieliakas, Jakulis, and is informally referred to as King of Knygnešiai. It is estimated, that during 31 years when he was active, Bielinis and his organizations illegally brought about half of all Lithuanian books from the East Prussia into the Lithuanian mainland during the entire press ban
Jan 19 Arthur Batut a French photographer and pioneer of aerial photography.
Jan 21 Emil Jellinek a wealthy European entrepreneur who sat on the board of Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft between 1900 and 1909. He specified an engine designed there by Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler for the first 'modern' car. Jellinek named the engine after his daughter, Mercedes Jellinek. The Mercedes 35hp model later contributed to the brand name developed in 1926, Mercedes-Benz, when DMG and Benz & Cie. merged into what is now among the largest car brands in the world. Jellinek lived in Vienna, Austria but later moved to Nice on the French Riviera, where he was the General Consul to Austria-Hungary
Jan 23 Vasily Tchernetzov a Don Cossack Russian Imperial Army officer who served as a colonel in the Don Army during the Russian Civil War. He led Tchernetzov's Partisans, an independent irregular Don Cossacks military company commissioned after the Act of Ataman by Alexey Kaledin on November 7, 1917
Jan 24 George Arthur Crump a hotelier and golf course architect primarily known for designing and building Pine Valley Golf Club, which, at the time of its opening, was considered the most difficult golf course in the world.
Jan 25 Philippe Gaucher a French dermatologist born in the department of Nièvre.
Jan 26 Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich of Russia the first-born son of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia and Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna of Russia and a grandson of Nicholas I of Russia.
Jan 26 Noman Çelebicihan a Crimean Tatar politician, lawyer, Mufti of Crimean Moslems, and writer. He was the first President of the short-lived independent Crimean People's Republic, established on November 26 , 1917. He is known for having written the poem "Ant etkenmen" , which became the Crimean Tatar national anthem. His early death at the hands of Bolshevik forces during the Russian Civil War is still commemorated in the Crimean Tatar nation
Jan 26 Ewald Hering a German physiologist who did much research into color vision, binocular perception and eye movements. He proposed opponent color theory in 1892
Jan 28 John McCrae a Canadian poet, physician, author, artist and soldier during World War I, and a surgeon during the Second Battle of Ypres, in Belgium. He is best known for writing the famous war memorial poem "In Flanders Fields". McCrae died of pneumonia near the end of the war
Jan 29 Édouard Chavannes best known for his translations of major segments of Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, the work's first ever translation into a Western language.
Jan 31 Ivan Pulyui a Ukrainian-born physicist, inventor and patriot who has been championed as an early developer of the use of X-rays for medical imaging. His contributions were largely neglected until the end of the 20th century
Feb 1 Leonilla Bariatinskaya a Russian aristocrat who married Ludwig, Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn. Known for her great beauty and intellect, Princess Leonilla was the subject of a number of portraits by Franz Xaver Winterhalter
Feb 1 John Adolph Shafer an American botanist.
Feb 2 John L. Sullivan generally recognized as the last heavyweight champion of bare-knuckle boxing under the London Prize Ring Rules. He was the first American athlete to earn over one million dollars
Feb 4 Akiyama Saneyuki a Meiji-period career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy. He was famous as a planner of Battle of Tsushima in the Russo-Japanese War. The Japanese general Akiyama Yoshifuru was his elder brother and the Japanese politician Hisako Ōishi was his granddaughter
Feb 6 Gustav Klimt an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objets d'art. Klimt's primary subject was the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism. In addition to his figurative works, which include allegories and portraits, he painted landscapes. Among the artists of the Vienna Secession, Klimt was the most influenced by Japanese art and its methods
Feb 7 Alexander Taneyev a Russian state official and composer of the late Romantic era, specifically of the nationalist school. Among his better-known works were three string quartets, believed to have been composed between 1898–1900
Feb 7 Vladimir (Bogoyavlensky) Metropolitan of Kiev and Gallich , Metropolitan of Moscow.
Feb 8 Louis Renault (jurist) a French jurist and educator, the cowinner in 1907 of the Nobel Prize for Peace.
Feb 10 Abdul Hamid II the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective autocratic control over the fracturing state. He oversaw a period of decline in the power and extent of the Empire, including widespread pogroms and government-sanctioned massacres of Armenians, as well as an assassination attempt, ruling from 31 August 1876 until he was deposed shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, on 27 April 1909. He was succeeded by his brother Mehmed Abdul Hamid's removal from the throne was hailed by most Ottoman citizens, who welcomed the return to constitutional rule, which had been suspended for decades after his dissolution of the Ottoman parliament and constitution in 1878 had ended the first constitutional era and given him absolute control for 30 years
Feb 10 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta an Italian journalist, nationalist, revolutionary soldier and later a pacifist and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate. He adopted the motto In varietate unitas!
Feb 11 Alexey Kaledin a Russian Full General of Cavalry who led the Don Cossack White movement in the opening stages of the Russian Civil War.
Feb 11 Taytu Betul an Empress Consort of the Ethiopian Empire and the wife of Emperor Menelek II of Ethiopia.
Feb 15 Vernon and Irene Castle were a husband-and-wife team of ballroom dancers of the early 20th century, who appeared on Broadway and in silent films. They are credited with reviving the popularity of modern dancing. Vernon Castle was born William Vernon Blyth in Norwich, Norfolk, England. Irene Castle was born Irene Foote in New Rochelle, New York
Feb 16 Károly Khuen-Héderváry a Hungarian politician; Ban of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia in the late nineteenth century. He succeeded the temporary reign of Ban Hermann Ramberg in 1883. Khuen's reign was marked by a strong magyarization. After a series of riots broke out against him in 1903, Khuen was relieved of his duty and appointed prime minister of Hungary
Feb 17 Milan Neralić a Croatian fencer who competed in the late 19th century and early 20th century for Austria-Hungary.
Feb 21 Neltje Blanchan a United States scientific historian and nature writer who published several books on wildflowers and birds under the pen name Neltje Blanchan. Her work is known for its synthesis of scientific interest with poetic phrasing
Feb 23 Sophie Menter a German pianist and composer who became the favorite female student of Franz Liszt. She was called l'incarnation de Liszt in Paris because of her robust, electrifying playing style and was considered one of the greatest piano virtuosos of her time. She died at Stockdorf, near Munich
Feb 23 Adolphus Frederick VI Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz the last regnant grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Feb 23 Thomas Brassey 1st Earl Brassey a British Liberal Party politician, Governor of Victoria and founder of The Naval Annual.
Feb 27 Vasily Safonov a Russian pianist, teacher, conductor and composer.
Feb 28 Nikolay Nikanorovich Dubovskoy a Russian landscape painter. Dubovskoy was born in Novocherkassk, a province of Rostov, in 1859
Mar 1 Emil Sjögren a Swedish composer.
Mar 2 Hubert Howe Bancroft an American historian and ethnologist who wrote, published and collected works concerning the western United States, Texas, California, Alaska, Mexico, Central America and British Columbia.