Died in 1923

Jan 3 Jaroslav Hašek a Czech writer, humorist, satirist, journalist, bohemian and anarchist. He is best known for his novel The Good Soldier Švejk, an unfinished collection of farcical incidents about a soldier in World War I and a satire on the ineptitude of authority figures. The novel has been translated into about sixty languages, making it the most translated novel in Czech literature
Jan 5 Emanuel Wirth a German violinist and violist.
Jan 5 Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn an Austrian author.
Jan 6 Pyotr Subbotin-Permyak a Russian avant-gardist painter, the professor of decorative painting. He was an author of more than 40 paintings and about 100 drawings
Jan 9 Vladimir Medem a Russian Jewish politician and ideologue of the Jewish Labour Bund. The Medem library in Paris, the largest European Yiddish institution, bears his name
Jan 9 Katherine Mansfield a prominent modernist writer of short fiction who was born and brought up in colonial New Zealand and wrote under the pen name of Katherine Mansfield. When she was 19, Mansfield left New Zealand and settled in the United Kingdom, where she became a friend of modernist writers such as D.H. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf. In 1917 she was diagnosed with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, which led to her death at the age of 34
Jan 11 Constantine I of Greece King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. He was commander-in-chief of the Hellenic Army during the unsuccessful Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and led the Greek forces during the successful Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, in which Greece won Thessaloniki and doubled in area and population. He succeeded to the throne of Greece on 18 March 1913, following his father's assassination
Jan 11 Michael Gleason an American rower who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics.
Jan 13 Alexandre Ribot a French politician, four times Prime Minister.
Jan 15 Zübeyde Hanım the mother of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey. She was the only daughter of the Hacısofular family which included her two brothers. Zübeyde was born in Langaza village , Ottoman Empire in 1857 as the daughter of a Turkish peasant. Hacısofular Family migrated to Macedonia after the collapse of Karamanids
Jan 16 Charlotte Mason a British educator who invested her life in improving the quality of education in England at the turn of the twentieth century. Her revolutionary methods led to a shift from utilitarian education to the education of a child upon living ideas. She based much of her early philosophy on current brain research, on the writings of John Amos Comenius, Matthew Arnold, John Ruskin, and others, and on the collaborative efforts of those whose beliefs about education she admired, as well as her vast experience as both a teacher and a trainer and mentor for new teachers
Jan 18 Boleslav Mlodzeevskii a Russian mathematician, a former president of the Moscow Mathematical Society. He was working in differential and algebraic geometry
Jan 18 Wallace Reid an American actor in silent film referred to as "the screen's most perfect lover".
Jan 23 Max Nordau a Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic.
Jan 29 Elihu Vedder an American symbolist painter, book illustrator, and poet, born in New York City.
Jan 31 Eligiusz Niewiadomski a Polish modernist painter and art critic who belonged to the right-wing National Democratic Party till 1904 and later continued supporting In 1922 he assassinated Poland's first President, Gabriel Narutowicz.
Feb 1 Ernst Troeltsch a German Protestant theologian and writer on philosophy of religion and philosophy of history, and an influential figure in German thought before 1914, including as a member of the history of religions school. His work was a synthesis of a number of strands, drawing on Albrecht Ritschl, Max Weber's conception of sociology, and the Neo-Kantians of the Baden school
Feb 3 Kuroki Tamemoto a general in the Imperial Japanese Army. He was the head of the Japanese First Army during the Russo-Japanese War; and his forces enjoyed a series of successes during the Manchurian fighting at the Battle of Yalu River, the Battle of Liaoyang, the Battle of Shaho and the Battle of Mukden
Feb 4 Giuseppe Antonio Ermenegildo Prisco an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, who served as Archbishop of Naples.
Feb 5 Léon-Joseph Chavalliaud a French sculptor. He created several notable works in France and in England where he lived for 15 years
Feb 5 Count Erich Kielmansegg an Austrian statesman. He served as stadtholder of Lower Austria and short time Cisleithanian Minister-President of Austria-Hungary in 1895
Feb 6 Edward Emerson Barnard an American astronomer. He was commonly known as E. Barnard, and was recognized as a gifted observational astronomer. He is best known for his discovery of Barnard's Star in 1916, which is named in his honor
Feb 6 Adolf Heyduk a distinguished Czech poet and writer. Many of his poems were later adapted by Antonín Dvořák. By far the most well known and widely performed is the poignant and tender Songs My Mother Taught Me with its hauntingly exquisite setting, long considered a masterpiece in the repertoire of many renowned artists
Feb 8 Lilli Suburg an Estonian journalist, writer and feminist. In 1882, she established a private primary school for Estonian girls in Pärnu, in 1885 she moved it to Viljandi where the number of pupils grew to 80. In 1887–1894, she published the first women's magazine in Estonia, Linda
Feb 10 Wilhelm Röntgen a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today that was known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. In honour of his accomplishments, in 2004 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry named element 111, roentgenium, a radioactive element with multiple unstable isotopes, after him
Feb 11 Wilhelm Killing a German mathematician who made important contributions to the theories of Lie algebras, Lie groups, and non-Euclidean geometry.
Feb 11 Joseph DeCamp an American painter.
Feb 14 Bartolomeo Bacilieri an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Verona from 1900 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1901
Feb 15 Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau a noted French Orientalist and archaeologist.
Feb 18 Alois Rašín a Czech economist and politician.
Feb 19 Élie Marchal a Belgian botanist and mycologist.
Feb 20 Fyodor Palitzin a Russian General who commanded the Russian Expeditionary Force in France.
Feb 20 Damdin Sükhbaatar a founding member of the Mongolian People's Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that liberated Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921. Enshrined as the "Father of Mongolia's Revolution", he is remembered as one of the most important figures in Mongolia's struggle for independence
Feb 21 Prince Miguel Duke of Viseu a member of the exiled branch of the House of Braganza. The eldest son of the Miguelist pretender to the throne of Portugal he married an American heiress in 1909 and in 1920 renounced his rights to the throne. His full given names were Miguel Maria Sebastiao Maximiliano Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Francisco D'Assis e de Paula Eustachio Carlos Afonso José Henrique Alberto Clemente lgnacio Martinho Antonio Gerardo Jorge Emmeric Mauricio
Feb 21 Nikolai Bibikov a general in the Imperial Russian Army.
Feb 22 Théophile Delcassé a French statesman.
Feb 22 Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxe-Meiningen the only daughter of Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen by his first wife Princess Charlotte Frederica of Prussia. She was notable as a musician and composer. One of her most famous works is Romanze in F major for clarinet and piano
Feb 22 John Jenkins (Australian politician) an American-Australian politician and Premier of South Australia.
Feb 23 Harold Humby a British sport shooter, who competed at the 1908, 1912 and 1920 Summer Olympics.
Feb 24 Edward W. Morley an American scientist famous for his path-breaking measurements of the atomic weight of oxygen, and for the Michelson–Morley experiment.
Mar 1 Rui Barbosa a Brazilian writer, jurist, and politician.
Mar 3 Georg von Rosen a Swedish painter, known for his treatment of subjects from Swedish history and Norse mythology. He taught at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts between 1880 and 1908
Mar 4 Alexander Opekushin a Russian sculptor. Among his works are part of the sculptures of the Millennium of Russia monument in Velikiy Novgorod , the monument to Alexander Pushkin in Moscow , the monument to Mikhail Lermontov in Pyatigorsk , the monument to Alexander II in Moscow , the monument to Alexander III in Moscow
Mar 5 Dora Pejačević a Croatian composer, a member of Pejačević noble family. She was one of the composers to introduce the orchestral song to Croatian music
Mar 8 Martin Lipp an Estonian poet. He is best known as the author of the poem "The Estonian Flag", which was set to the music of the then young composer Enn Võrk. That song became as popular to the Estonian people as the "Marseillaise" was to the French in the times of the French Revolution and also played an important role in the time of the Second Awakening in late 1980s
Mar 8 Johannes Diderik van der Waals a Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist famous for his work on an equation of state for gases and liquids.
Mar 8 Krišjānis Barons known as the "father of the dainas" thanks largely to his systematization of the Latvian folk songs and his labour in preparing their texts for publication in Latvju dainas. His portrait appears on the 100-lat banknote, the only human face of an actual person on modern Latvian currency. Barons was very prominent among the Young Latvians, and also an important writer and editor
Mar 8 Ernst Leopold Salkowski a German biochemist who was a native of Königsberg.
Mar 9 Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher a German classical scholar. He specialized in studies of Greek and Roman mythology
Mar 11 Karl von Müller Captain of the famous German commerce raider, the light cruiser SMS Emden during World War I.