Died in 1927

Jan 2 Ahad Ha'am a Hebrew essayist, and one of the foremost pre-state Zionist thinkers. He is known as the founder of cultural Zionism. With his secular vision of a Jewish "spiritual center" in Israel, he confronted Theodor Herzl. Unlike Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, Ha'am strived for "a Jewish state and not merely a state of Jews"
Jan 3 Carl David Tolmé Runge a German mathematician, physicist, and spectroscopist.
Jan 4 Süleyman Nazif an eminent Ottoman Turkish poet. He mastered Arabic, Persian, and French languages and worked as a civil servant during the reign of Sultan Abdulhamid He contributed to the literary magazine Servet-i Fünun until it was censored by the Ottoman government in 1901
Jan 8 Sydney Evans a British heavyweight boxer who competed in the early twentieth century. He won a silver medal in Boxing at the 1908 Summer Olympics
Jan 9 Houston Stewart Chamberlain described in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as a "racialist writer". He later became a German citizen. In December 1908, twenty-five years after Wagner's death, Chamberlain married Wagner's daughter, Eva von Bülow. Chamberlain's two-volume book, Die Grundlagen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts , published in 1899, became one of the many references for the pan-Germanic movement of the early 20th century, and, later, of the völkisch antisemitism of Nazi racial policy
Jan 10 Friedrich Hirth a German-American sinologist.
Jan 11 Andrzej Gawroński a Polish Indologist, linguist and polyglot. Professor of Jagiellonian University and Lviv University, , the author of the first Polish handbook of Sanskrit , founder of Polish Oriental Society
Jan 13 William Barclay Squire a British musicologist, librarian and librettist.
Jan 15 Dawid Janowski a leading Polish chess master and subsequent French citizen.
Jan 15 David R. Francis an American politician. He served in various positions including Mayor of Saint Louis, the 27th Governor of Missouri, and United States Secretary of the Interior. He was the U.S. Ambassador to Russia between 1916 and 1917, during the Russian Revolution of 1917. He was a Democrat
Jan 16 Jovan Cvijić a Serbian geographer, president of the Serbian Royal Academy of Sciences and rector of the University of Belgrade. Cvijić is considered the founder of geography in Serbia. He began his scientific career as a geographer and geologist, and continued his activity as a human geographer and sociologist
Jan 17 Juliette Gordon Low the founder of Girl Scouts of the USA, with the help of Sir Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of the Scouting Movement. Baden-Powell had learned that girls wanted to join the scouts, but he felt that girls should have their own organization. He asked Low if she would like to be part of the Girl Guide movement, forming a group of Girl Guides in Scotland in 1911. In 1912 Low returned to the United States, forming a Girl Guide troop in Savannah, Georgia in 1912. In 1915, the Girl Guides in the USA became Girl Scouts and Low became the first president. She stayed active until the time of her death. Her birthday, October 31, is celebrated by the Girl Scouts as "Founder's Day". She was also awarded two patents, a utility patent for a "Liquid Container for Use with Garbage Cans or the Like", Patent 1,124,925, and a design patent, D45234, for the trefoil Girl Scout Badge
Jan 18 Otto Wiener (physicist) a German physicist.
Jan 19 Carlota of Mexico empress consort of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, the former Archduke of Austria.
Jan 19 Carl Gräbe a German industrial and academic chemist from Frankfurt am Main who held professorships in his field at Leipzig, Königsberg, and Geneva. He is known for the first synthesis of the economically important dye, alizarin, with Liebermann, and for contributing to the fundamental nomenclature of organic chemistry
Jan 20 Domenico Comparetti an Italian scholar. He was born at Rome and died at Florence
Jan 21 Charles Warren an officer in the British Royal Engineers. He was one of the earliest European archaeologists of Biblical Holy Land, and particularly of Temple Mount. Much of his military service was spent in the British South Africa, but in earlier life he was Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police, from 1886 to 1888, during the period of the Jack the Ripper murders. His command in combat during the Second Boer War was criticised, but he achieved considerable success during his long life in his military and civil posts
Jan 22 James Ford Rhodes an American industrialist and historian born in Cleveland, Ohio. After earning a fortune in the iron, coal, and steel industries by 1885, he retired from business. He devoted his life to historical research and publishing a seven-volume history of the United States beginning in 1850; his work was published from 1893-1906. He published an eighth volume in 1920. His work, History of the Civil War, 1861-1865 , won the Pulitzer Prize for history that year
Jan 22 Ödön Bodor a Hungarian athlete. He competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics in London in the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm. He was Jewish
Jan 22 Edward Page Mitchell an American editorial and short story writer for The Sun, a daily newspaper in New York City. He became that newspaper's editor in 1897, succeeding Charles Anderson Dana. Mitchell was recognized as a major figure in the early development of the science fiction genre. Mitchell wrote fiction about a man rendered invisible by scientific means before H.G. Wells's The Invisible Man, wrote about a time-travel machine before Wells's The Time Machine, wrote about faster-than-light travel in 1874, a thinking computer and a cyborg in 1879 , and also wrote the earliest known stories about matter transmission or teleportation and a superior mutant. "Exchanging Their Souls" is one of the earliest fictional accounts of mind transfer. Mitchell retired in 1926, a year before dying of a cerebral hemorrhage
Jan 24 Eugène Turpin a French chemist involved in research of explosive materials. He lived in Colombes
Jan 25 Ivan Milev a Bulgarian painter and scenographer regarded as the founder of the Bulgarian Secession and a representative of Bulgarian modernism, combining symbolism, Art Nouveau and expressionism in his work.
Jan 26 Lyman J. Gage an American financier and Presidential Cabinet officer.
Jan 27 Jurgis Matulaitis-Matulevičius a Roman Catholic Bishop of Vilnius from 1918 to 1925 and founder of the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. On 28 June 1987, Pope John Paul II beatified him as the Blessed Jurgis Matulaitis-Matulewicz
Jan 30 Friedrich Koch a German composer, cellist and teacher. He was born in Berlin and studied cello with Robert Hausmann and composition with Woldemar Bargiel at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik. He served as a cellist in the Royal Orchestra of Berlin between 1882 and 1891, after which he accepted a position of music director for the resort town of Baden-Baden. A year later, he returned to Berlin, where he concentrated on composing and teaching, eventually becoming a professor and director of theory at the Musikhochschule where he had studied. Kurt Weill, Pablo Sorozábal, Boris Blacher and Paul Kletzki were among his many students
Feb 4 Janko Vukotić a Serdar, general in the armies of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro in the Balkan Wars and World War He also served as Montenegro's minister of defence in periods 1905-1907, 1911–1912 and 1913–1915 and as the Prime Minister of Montenegro 1913-1915. He is famous for commanding the Sandžak Army of Montenegrin forces during the Battle of Mojkovac, in which his daughter Vasilija Vukotić was a courier - the only woman participant in that battle
Feb 5 Inayat Khan the founder of The Sufi Order in the West in 1914 and teacher of Universal Sufism. He initially came to the West as a Northern Indian classical musician, having received the honorific "Tansen" from the Nizam of Hyderabad, but he soon turned to the introduction and transmission of Sufi thought and practice. Later, in 1923, the Sufi Order of the London period was dissolved into a new organization, formed under Swiss law, called the "International Sufi Movement". His message of divine unity focused on the themes of love, harmony and beauty. He taught that blind adherence to any book rendered religion void of spirit. Branches of Inayat Khan's movement can be found in the Netherlands, France, England, Germany, the United States, Canada, Russia and Australia
Feb 6 Kamio Mitsuomi a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, who commanded the Allied land forces during the Siege of Tsingtao in World War I.
Feb 6 Sam Maguire chiefly remembered as the eponym of the Sam Maguire Cup, given to the All-Ireland Senior Champions of Gaelic football.
Feb 9 Charles Doolittle Walcott an American invertebrate paleontologist. He became known for his discovery in 1909 of well-preserved fossils in the Burgess Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Feb 11 Joel Engel (composer) a music critic, composer and one of the leading figures in the Jewish art music movement. Born in Russia, and later moving to Berlin and then to Palestine, Engel has been called "the true founding father of the modern renascence of Jewish music."
Feb 13 Frank Bell (governor) an American politician. He was the sixth Governor of Nevada. He was a member of the Republican Party
Feb 13 Christian Landenberger a German Impressionist painter and a Professor at the State Academy of Fine Arts, Stuttgart. He is especially known for his landscapes
Feb 16 Jonas Basanavičius an activist and proponent of Lithuanian National Revival and founder of the first Lithuanian language newspaper Aušra. He was one of the initiators and the Chairman of the Organizing Committee of the 1905 Great Seimas of Vilnius. He was also the founder and chairman of the Lithuanian Scientific Society. As a member of the Council of Lithuania, he was a signatory of the Act of Independence of Lithuania on February 16, 1918
Feb 16 Otto Keller (philologist) a German classical philologist who specialized in Horace.
Feb 17 Francis Lane an American athlete. He competed at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Greece
Feb 18 Vladimir Gurko a Russian government official and a member of the Russian Assembly, a right-wing party.
Feb 18 Turhan Përmeti an Albanian politician in the Ottoman Empire and later prime minister of Albania.
Feb 19 Robert Fuchs an Austrian composer and music teacher.
Feb 19 Fernand de Langle de Cary a French general during World War He commanded Fourth Army when the war began.
Feb 19 Georg Brandes a Danish critic and scholar who had great influence on Scandinavian and European literature from the 1870s through the turn of the 20th century. He is seen as the theorist behind the "Modern Breakthrough" of Scandinavian culture. At the age of 30, Brandes formulated the principles of a new realism and naturalism, condemning hyper-aesthetic writing and fantasy in literature. According to Brandes, literature should be an organ "of the great thoughts of liberty and the progress of humanity". His literary goals were shared by many authors, among them the Norwegian realist playwright Henrik Ibsen
Feb 19 Herbert Akroyd Stuart noted for his invention of the hot bulb engine, or heavy oil engine.
Feb 22 Judson Harmon a Democratic politician from Ohio. He served as United States Attorney General under President Grover Cleveland and later served as the 45th Governor of Ohio
Feb 23 Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson an Icelandic composer best known for composing Lofsöngur, the National Anthem of Iceland.
Feb 23 Viktor Kalinnikov a Russian choral composer, conductor and pedagogue. He was the younger brother of the better-known symphonic composer Vasily Kalinnikov
Feb 24 Frank MacKey an American polo player in the 1900 Summer Olympics.
Feb 24 Edward Marshall Hall an English barrister who had a formidable reputation as an orator. He successfully defended many people accused of notorious murders and became known as "The Great Defender"
Feb 26 Karl Gottfried Konstantin Dehio a Baltic German internist and professor of pathology.
Feb 28 Luke Fildes an English painter and illustrator born at Liverpool and trained in the South Kensington and Royal Academy schools.
Mar 2 Ida Marie Lipsius a German writer and music historian.