Died in 1938

Jan 2 Ulvi Rajab an Azerbaijani stage actor.
Jan 4 Ion Dic Dicescu a Romanian socialist journalist and officer and later Bolshevik activist who held command positions in the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. After the war he held research positions in the economical domain at several Soviet universities and research institutes, before being executed on accusations of espionage during the Great Purge
Jan 6 Milne Cheetham a British diplomat.
Jan 8 Johnny Gruelle an American artist, political cartoonist, children's book author and illustrator. He is known as the creator of Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Andy. He had such confidence in his design that often he would create the final ink work without first sketching in pencil
Jan 8 Christian Rohlfs a German painter, one of the important representatives of German expressionism.
Jan 9 David Calderhead a Scottish footballer who later became a manager, notably of Chelsea.
Jan 10 Otto Warburg (botanist) a German botanist. He was also a notable industrial agriculture expert, as well as an active member of the Zionist Organization. From 1911–21, he served as the president of the ZO, which among other things, sought 'for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine."
Jan 10 Ivan Kleymyonov a Soviet scientist and one of the founders of the Soviet rocketry.
Jan 11 Ervin Bauer a Hungarian biologist.
Jan 11 Alfred Barton Rendle an English botanist.
Jan 11 Johan Salonen a Finnish wrestler. He competed in the lightweight event at the 1912 Summer Olympics
Jan 11 Arvid Kubbel a Russian chess player and composer of chess problems and endgame studies. He was a brother of Evgeny and Leonid Kubbel; their father was born in Latvia, of Baltic German descent. He played in relatively few tournaments, but was among the stronger players of the early Soviet Union
Jan 12 Gösta Ekman (senior) a Swedish actor. Generally spoken of as Swedish theatre's most legendary stage actor, Gösta Ekman enjoyed a prolific stage career during his short life, becoming the first real star of Swedish theatre
Jan 14 Anatoly Pepelyayev a White Russian general who led the Siberian armies of Admiral Kolchak during the Russian Civil War. His elder brother Viktor Pepelyayev served as Prime Minister in Kolchak's government
Jan 16 Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay a Bengali novelist and short story writer of early 20th century.
Jan 16 William Henry Pickering an American astronomer and the brother of Edward Charles Pickering. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1883
Jan 17 Vladimir Beneshevich a scholar of Byzantine history and canon law, and a philologer and paleographer of the manuscripts in that sphere.
Jan 19 Branislav Nušić a Serbian novelist, playwright, satirist, essayist and founder of modern rhetoric in Serbia of Aromanian descent. He also worked as a journalist and a civil servant
Jan 20 Émile Cohl a French caricaturist of the largely forgotten Incoherent Movement, cartoonist, and animator, called "The Father of the Animated Cartoon" and "The Oldest Parisian".
Jan 20 Nikolai Zhilyayev (musicologist) a Russian musicologist, and the teacher of several 20th-century Russian composers.
Jan 20 John Kunkel Small an American botanist.
Jan 21 David Riazanov a political revolutionary, Marxist theoretician, and archivist. Riazanov is best remembered as the founder of the Marx-Engels Institute and editor of the first large-scale effort to publish the collected works of these two founders of the modern socialist movement. Riazanov is also remembered as a prominent victim of the Great Terror of the late 1930s
Jan 21 Georges Méliès a French illusionist and filmmaker famous for leading many technical and narrative developments in the earliest days of cinema. Méliès, a prolific innovator in the use of special effects, accidentally discovered the substitution stop trick in 1896, and was one of the first filmmakers to use multiple exposures, time-lapse photography, dissolves, and hand-painted color in his work. Because of his ability to seemingly manipulate and transform reality through cinematography, Méliès is sometimes referred to as the first "Cinemagician". His films include A Trip to the Moon and The Impossible Voyage , both involving strange, surreal journeys somewhat in the style of Jules Verne, and are considered among the most important early science fiction films, though their approach is closer to fantasy. Méliès was also an early pioneer of horror cinema, which can be traced back to his The Haunted Castle
Jan 23 Albertson Van Zo Post an American fencer who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics and 1912 Summer Olympics.
Jan 24 Viktor Belash the Chief of Staff of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine under Nestor Makhno. He was of Ukrainian ethnicity. Belash's Memoirs are an important source for the history of this insurrection
Jan 25 Yevgeny Polivanov a Soviet linguist, orientalist and polyglot.
Jan 26 Matthew Betz an American film actor. After an extended career in the U.S. Cavalry, he spent eight years in Vaudeville. His first stage play was Ellis Island. He appeared in 125 films between 1914 and 1937
Jan 26 Zitkala-Sa a Sioux writer, editor, musician, teacher and political activist. She wrote several works chronicling her youthful struggles with identity and pulls between the majority culture and her Native American heritage. Her later books in English brought traditional Native American stories to a widespread white readership for one of the first times
Jan 28 Bernd Rosemeyer a German racing driver.
Jan 29 E. G. Swain an English cleric and author. As a chaplain of King's College, Cambridge, he was a colleague and contemporary of the scholar and author R. James, and a regular member of the select group to whom James delivered his famous annual Christmas Eve reading of a ghost story composed specially for the occasion. Swain collaborated with James on topical skits for amateur performance in Cambridge, but he is best known for the collection of ghost stories he published in 1912, entitled The Stoneground Ghost Tales. He also wrote a history of Peterborough Cathedral
Jan 30 James Basevi Ord a US Army Lieutenant Colonel killed in an air crash at Camp John Hay, Philippines. At the time, Ord was serving as the Assistant Military Advisor to the Commonwealth of the Philippines, under US Military Advisor General MacArthur
Jan 30 Mehmed Ziyaeddin an Ottoman prince, son of Sultan Mehmed V and his first wive Kamres Kadın Efendi, an ethnic Circassian. He was educated privately. He received the Collar of the Hanedan-i-Ali-Osman and the Nişan-ı-Ali-Imtiyaz, and Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle of Prussia
Feb 3 Marija Leiko a Latvian silent movie actress in Europe since the 1910s, especially popular in Latvia, Germany and Russia.
Feb 4 Ivan Strod a red army officer during the Russian Civil War in the Russian Far East from 1918 to 1923.
Feb 5 Hans Litten a German lawyer who represented opponents of the Nazis at important political trials between 1929 and 1932, defending the rights of workers during the Weimar Republic. During one trial in 1931, Litten subpoenaed Adolf Hitler, to appear as a witness, where Litten then cross-examined Hitler for three hours. Hitler was so rattled by the experience that, years later, he would not allow Litten's name to be mentioned in his presence. In retaliation, Litten was arrested on the night of the Reichstag Fire along with other progressive lawyers and leftists. Litten spent the rest of his life in one Nazi concentration camp or another, enduring torture and many interrogations. After five years and a move to Dachau, where his treatment worsened and he was cut off from all outside communication, he committed suicide. A number of memorials to him exist in Germany, but Litten was largely ignored for decades because his politics did not fit comfortably in either the west or the communist postwar propaganda. Not until 2011 was Litten finally portrayed in the mass media, when the BBC broadcast The Man Who Crossed Hitler, a television film set in Berlin in summer 1931
Feb 5 Axel Ljung a Swedish gymnast and track and field athlete who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics. He was born and died in Stockholm
Feb 6 Marianne von Werefkin a Russian-Swiss Expressionist painter.
Feb 7 Harvey Samuel Firestone an American businessman, and the founder of the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, one of the first global makers of automobile tires.
Feb 8 Nikolai Kuzmin a Soviet political and military leader. He was the political Commisar of the Baltic Fleet during the time of the Russian Civil War
Feb 8 John Pepper a Hungarian-Jewish Communist politician, active in the radical movements of both Hungary and the United States. He later served as a functionary in the Communist International in Moscow, before being cashiered in 1929. Later an official in the Soviet government, Pepper ran afoul of the secret police and was executed during the Great Terror of 1937–38
Feb 8 Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark the fourth child and third son of George I, King of the Hellenes, and of Queen Olga. He was known as "Greek Nicky" in the family to distinguish him from his cousin Czar Nicholas II of Russia. Prince Nicholas was a talented painter, often signing his works as "Nicolas Leprince."
Feb 9 Gazanfar Musabekov an Azerbaijani Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet statesman. He was Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan SSR from 1929 to 1931 and he headed the government of the Transcaucasian SFSR from 1931 to 1936. During the Great Purge, Musabekov was arrested , accused of plotting against the Soviet state, sentenced to death and executed on 9 February 1938
Feb 9 Romuald Muklevich a Soviet military figure and Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Naval Forces from August 1926 to July 1931.
Feb 10 Mykhailo Bondarenko a Ukrainian and Soviet politician, who served as the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Ukrainian SSR from August to October 1937.
Feb 10 Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko a prominent Soviet Bolshevik leader and diplomat.
Feb 10 Turar Ryskulov Soviet politician; the chairman of the Central Electoral Committee of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
Feb 10 Grigory Kaminsky the 2nd First Secretary of Azerbaijan Communist Party, Soviet politician and one of founders of health care system in Soviet Union.
Feb 10 Maksim Haretski a Belarusian prose writer, an activist of the Belarusian national-democratic renewal, folklorist, lexicographer, professor. Maksim Harecki was also known by his pen-names Maksim Bełarus, M.B. Bełarus, M.H., Mścisłaŭski, Dzed Kuźma, Macej Myška, Mizeryus Monus. In his works he often appeared as Kuźma Batura, Liavon Zaduma
Feb 11 Kazimierz Twardowski a Polish philosopher and logician.
Feb 12 Paolo Troubetzkoy an artist and a sculptor who was described by G.B. Shaw as "the most astonishing sculptor of modern times"