Died in 1955

Jan 1 Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar a well-known Indian scientist, a professor of chemistry for over 19 years. He was the first director-general of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research , and he is revered as the "father of research laboratories". He was also the first Chairman of the University Grants Commission
Jan 1 Arthur C. Parker an American archaeologist, historian, folklorist, museologist and noted authority on American Indian culture. Of Seneca and Scots-English descent, he was director of the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences from 1924 to 1945, when he developed its holdings and research into numerous disciplines for the Genesee Region. He was an honorary trustee of the New York State Historical Association. In 1935 he was elected first president of the Society for American Archaeology
Jan 3 John Fenning a British doctor and rower who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics.
Jan 5 Marcel Déat a French Socialist until 1933, when he initiated a spin-off from the French Section of the Workers' International along with other right-wing 'Neosocialists'. During the occupation of France by Nazi Germany, he founded the collaborationist National Popular Rally. In 1944, he became "Minister of Labor and National Solidarity" in Pierre Laval's government in Vichy, before escaping to the Sigmaringen enclave along with Vichy officials after the Allied landings in Normandy. Condemned in absentia for collaborationism, he died while still in hiding in Italy
Jan 6 Yevgeny Tarle a Soviet historian and academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is known for his books about Napoleon's invasion of Russia and on the Crimean War, and many other works. Yevgeny Tarle was one of the founders of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Russia's diplomatic university
Jan 7 Lamorna Birch an English artist in oils and watercolours. At the suggestion of fellow artist Stanhope Forbes, Birch adopted the soubriquet "Lamorna" to distinguish himself from Lionel Birch, an artist who was also working in the area at that time
Jan 7 Edward Kasner a prominent American mathematician who was appointed Tutor on Mathematics in the Columbia University Mathematics Department. Kasner was the first Jew appointed to a faculty position in the sciences at Columbia University. Subsequently, he became an adjunct professor in 1906, and a full professor in 1910, at the university. Differential geometry was his main field of study. In addition to introducing the term "googol", he is known also for the Kasner metric and the Kasner polygon
Jan 11 Princess Elizabeth of Greece and Denmark the middle daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia.
Jan 11 Rodolfo Graziani an officer in the Italian Regio Esercito who led military expeditions in Africa before and during World War II.
Jan 14 Horatio Nelson Jackson a physician and automobile pioneer. In 1903, he and driving partner Sewall Crocker became the first people to drive an automobile across the United States
Jan 14 Solomon Milshtein a Soviet state security official.
Jan 14 Edmond Lefebvre du Prey a French politician of the Third Republic.
Jan 15 Yves Tanguy a French surrealist painter.
Jan 18 Saadat Hasan Manto a British Indian-born Pakistani short story writer of the Urdu language. He is best known for his short stories, "Bu" , "Khol Do" , "Thanda Gosht" , and "Toba Tek Singh"
Jan 18 Luis Enrique Erro a Mexican astronomer, politician, and educational reformer.
Jan 20 Robert P. T. Coffin a writer, poet and professor at Wells College and Bowdoin College. He won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1936
Jan 21 Archie Hahn an American track athlete and one of the best sprinters in the early 20th century.
Jan 21 James Duncan (athlete) an American athlete, a member of the Mohawk Athletic Club, the Bradhurst Field Club and the Irish American Athletic Club. He competed mainly in the discus throw. Duncan was a member of the U.S. Olympic Team in the 1912 Summer Olympics held in Stockholm, Sweden and competed in the discus throw, winning the won the bronze medal. During World War I he rose to the rank of Lieutenant in the U.S. Army
Jan 22 Jonni Myyrä a Finnish athlete who competed at the 1912, 1920 and 1924 Olympics. In 1912, he finished eighth in the javelin throw. At the 1920 Olympics his left arm was fractured in a warm-up accident – the spear thrown by James Lincoln struck Myyrä while he was resting on the grass. Nevertheless Myyrä managed to win the javelin event with an Olympic record of 65.78 meters. He also finished 12th in the discus throw, but could not complete his pentathlon events. Myyrä successfully defended his javelin title at the 1924 Summer Olympics, and then fled to the United States due to his financial problems in Finland. He never returned to his home country and died in San Francisco in 1955
Jan 23 Arthur Duffey an American track and field athlete who competed at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. He was an alumnus of the Class of 1899 of Worcester Academy and Georgetown University. He was originally from Boston, Massachusetts and after his athletic career was a sports writer and editor and settled in the Boston area
Jan 24 Henry Potter (golfer) an American golfer who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics.
Jan 24 Ira Hayes a Pima Native American and a United States Marine corporal who was one of the six flag raisers immortalized in the iconic photograph of the flag raising on Iwo Jima during World War Hayes was an enrolled member of the Gila River Pima Indian Reservation located in the Pinal and Maricopa counties in Arizona. He enlisted in the United States Marine Corps Reserve on August 26, 1942, and after recruit training, volunteered to become a Paramarine. He fought in the Bougainville and Iwo Jima campaigns in the Pacific Theatre of Operations
Jan 24 Monte Beville a Major League Baseball catcher and first basemen who played in 1903 and 1904. He played for the New York Highlanders and the Detroit Tigers. He had a.203 career batting average
Jan 26 Holger Nielsen a Danish fencer, shooter, and athlete. He competed at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens. He is probably best known for drawing up the first modern set of rules for the game of handball
Jan 28 Friedrich Hochbaum a highly decorated General der Infanterie in the Wehrmacht during World War He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Friedrich Hochbaum was captured by Soviet troops in May 1945 and died in captivity on 28 January 1955
Jan 29 Hans Hedtoft Prime Minister of Denmark from 13 November 1947 to 30 October 1950 as the leader of the Cabinet of Hans Hedtoft I and again from 30 September 1953 to 29 January 1955 as the leader of the Cabinet of Hans Hedtoft II.
Jan 31 Mikhail Lozinsky deemed to be the most accomplished Russian translator of the 20th century. "In the difficult and noble art of translation," said Anna Akhmatova, "Lozinsky was for the twentieth century what Zhukovsky was for the nineteenth." Lozinsky's granddaughters include writers Tatyana Tolstaya and Natalia Tolstaya
Jan 31 Henry Ernest Atkins best known for his unparalleled record of winning the British Chess Championship nine times in eleven attempts. He won every year from 1905 to 1911, and again in 1924 and 1925. A schoolmaster, Atkins treated chess as a hobby, devoting relatively little time to it and playing in only a handful of international tournaments. He was an extremely gifted player who would likely have become one of the world's leading players had he pursued the game more single-mindedly. FIDE, the World Chess Federation, awarded him the International Master title in 1950 in recognition of his past achievements
Jan 31 Moshe Marzouk an Egyptian Karaite Jew, hanged in 1955 for his involvement in a series of bombings in Cairo codenamed Operation Suzannah.
Jan 31 John Mott a long-serving leader of the Young Men's Christian Association and the World Student Christian Federation. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1946 for his work in establishing and strengthening international Protestant Christian student organizations that worked to promote peace. He shared the prize with Emily Balch. From 1895 until 1920 Mott was the General Secretary of the WSCF. Intimately involved in the formation of the World Council of Churches in 1948, that body elected him as a lifelong honorary President. His best-known book, The Evangelization of the World in this Generation, became a missionary slogan in the early 20th century
Feb 3 Adrien Marquet a socialist mayor of Bordeaux who turned to the far right.
Feb 3 Vasili Blokhin a Soviet Russian Major-General who served as the chief executioner of the Stalinist NKVD under the administrations of Genrikh Yagoda, Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria. Hand-picked for the position by Joseph Stalin in 1926, Blokhin led a company of executioners that performed and supervised numerous mass executions during Stalin's reign, mostly during the Great Purge and World War He is recorded as having executed tens of thousands of prisoners by his own hand, including his killing of about 7,000 Polish prisoners of war during the Katyn massacre in spring 1940, making him the most prolific official executioner and mass murderer in recorded world history. Forced into retirement following the death of Stalin, Blokhin died in 1955, officially by suicide
Feb 5 Victor Houteff a religious reformer and author. Houteff was born in Raicovo, Bulgaria, and as a child baptised as a member of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. As a young man, he was engaged in the mercantile trade. In 1907, he and his brothers emigrated to the United States after, according to Victor Houteff's testimony, a mob that had taken up arms against his family and forced them onto a boat. Houteff would, on several occasions, return to visit his family, many of whom now live in the U.S. He is best known as the founder of the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist organization
Feb 5 Gustav Gassner a German botanist and plant pathologist whose 1918 paper on vernalization has been called "the first systematic study of temperature as a factor in the developmental physiology of plants.".
Feb 11 Ona Munson an American actress perhaps best known for her portrayal of prostitute Belle Watling in Gone with the Wind.
Feb 11 Olga Khokhlova a Russian ballet dancer, but better known as the first wife of Pablo Picasso and the mother of his son, Paulo.
Feb 12 Julius Bab a German dramatist and theater critic.
Feb 13 Carmen Tórtola Valencia a Spanish early modern dancer, choreographer, costume designer, and painter, who generally performed barefoot. Tórtola Valencia is said to have been the inspiration for Rubén Darío's poem, La bailarina de los pies desnudos
Feb 13 Hans Boeckh-Behrens a highly decorated Generalleutnant in the Wehrmacht during World War He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Hans Boeckh-Behrens was captured by Soviet troops in May 1945 and died in captivity on 13 February 1955
Feb 14 George Buckley (cricketer born 1875) a member of the gold medal winning Great Britain cricket team at the 1900 Summer Olympics, the only time cricket has featured at the Olympic Games. In the only match against France, Buckley scored two runs in the first innings and did not bat in the second
Feb 15 Marcella Mariani an Italian actress and Miss Italy contest winner. Though she appeared in several popular movies and was garnering acclaim as an actress, her career was cut short by her death in a 1955 airliner crash
Feb 17 Štefan Krčméry a Slovak poet, literary critic, historian, journalist, translator, and administrator of Matica slovenská. He was born in Mošovce and died in Pezinok
Feb 18 Kim Seong-su a Korean educator, independence activist, journalist, entrepreneur, politician and calligrapher, the second Vice President of South Korea serving 1951–1952. He founded Korea University and Dong-A Ilbo. Kim was born in Gochang county, North Jeolla province. nickname was Inchon , it was "the Good Village"
Feb 20 Oswald Avery a Canadian-born American physician and medical researcher. The major part of his career was spent at the Rockefeller University Hospital in New York City. Avery was one of the first molecular biologists and a pioneer in immunochemistry, but he is best known for the experiment that isolated DNA as the material of which genes and chromosomes are made
Feb 23 Paul Claudel a French poet, dramatist and diplomat, and the younger brother of the sculptor Camille Claudel. He was most famous for his verse dramas, which often convey his devout Catholicism
Feb 24 Erwin von Lahousen a high-ranking Abwehr official during World War II, as well as a member of the German Resistance and a key player in attempts to assassinate Adolf Hitler on March 13, 1943 and July 20, 1944.
Feb 28 August Adriaan Pulle a Dutch professor and botanist. He made important contributions to knowledge of the Flora of Suriname and the island of New Guinea
Feb 28 Prince Gabriel Constantinovich of Russia the second son of Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovich of Russia and his wife Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mavrikievna. A great-grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, he was born in Imperial Russia and served in the army during World War He lost much of his family during the War and the Russian Revolution. He narrowly escaped execution by the Bolsheviks and spent the rest of his life living in exile in France
Feb 28 Major Ritchie a male tennis player from Great Britain.
Mar 3 Otakar Švec a Czech sculptor best known for his colossal granite Monument to Stalin in Prague, Czech Republic.