Died in 1956

Jan 1 Frank Hague an American Democratic Party politician who served as the mayor of Jersey City, New Jersey from 1917 to 1947, Democratic National Committeeman from New Jersey from 1922 until 1949, and Vice-Chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 1924 until 1949.
Jan 3 Vaclovas Biržiška a Lithuanian attorney, bibliographer, and educator.
Jan 3 Joseph Wirth a German politician of the Catholic Centre Party who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1921 to 1922, for 585 days. During the post-war era, he participated in the neutralist Alliance of Germans party
Jan 3 Dimitrios Vergos a Greek champion in wrestling, weightlifting and shot put.
Jan 3 Alexander Gretchaninov a Russian Romantic composer.
Jan 5 Mistinguett a French actress and singer, whose birth name was Jeanne Florentine Bourgeois. She was at one time the best-paid female entertainer in the world
Jan 8 Nate Saint an evangelical Christian missionary pilot to Ecuador who, along with four others, was killed while attempting to evangelize the Huaorani people through efforts known as Operation Auca.
Jan 8 Greenleaf Whittier Pickard a United States radio pioneer. Pickard was a researcher in the early days of wireless. He was responsible for the development of the crystal detector, , a radio wave detector which was the central component in early radio receivers called crystal radios, which were the most widely used radio receivers until about 1920 and continued to be used until World War 2. He also experimented with antennas, radio wave propagation, and noise suppression. On August 30, 1906 he filed a patent for a silicon crystal detector, which was granted on November 20, 1906. Pickard's detector was revolutionary in that he found that a fine pointed wire known as a "cat's whisker," in delicate contact with a mineral produced the best semiconductor effect. On June 10, 1907, he filed a patent for a Magnetic Aerial which was granted on January 21, 1908. Pickard's loop antenna had directional properties that could be used to reduce interference to the intended wireless communications. Greenleaf Whittier Pickard was named after his great-uncle, the American Quaker John Greenleaf Whittier. Pickard was president of the Institute of Radio Engineers in 1913
Jan 8 Jim Elliot an evangelical Christian who was one of five missionaries killed while participating in Operation Auca, an attempt to evangelize the Huaorani people of Ecuador.
Jan 10 Peter O'Rourke a Scottish footballer and manager.
Jan 12 Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı a Turkish poet and author.
Jan 12 Norman Kerry an American actor whose career spanned over twenty-five years in the motion picture industry beginning in the silent era at the end of World War I.
Jan 12 Sam Langford a Black Canadian boxing standout of the early part of the 20th century. Called the "Greatest Fighter Nobody Knows," by ESPN, he was rated #2 by The Ring on their list of "100 greatest punchers of all time." Langford was originally from Weymouth Falls, a small community in Nova Scotia, Canada. He was known as "The Boston Bonecrusher," "The Boston Terror," and his most infamous nickname, "The Boston Tar Baby." Langford stood 5 ft 7 1⁄2 in and weighed 185 lb in his prime
Jan 13 Lyonel Feininger a German-American painter, and a leading exponent of Expressionism. He also worked as a caricaturist and comic strip artist. He was born and grew up in New York City, traveling to Germany at 16 to study and perfect his art. He started his career as a cartoonist in 1894 and met with much success in this area. He was also a commercial caricaturist for 20 years for magazines and newspapers in the USA and Germany. At the age of 36, he started to work as a fine artist. He also produced a large body of photographic works between 1928 and the mid 1950s, but he kept these primarily within his circle of friends. He was also a pianist and composer, with several piano compositions and fugues for organ extant
Jan 17 Blind Alfred Reed an American folk, country, and old-time musician. He was one of the artists who recorded at the Bristol Sessions in 1927, alongside more famous names such as Jimmie Rodgers and The Carter Family. He played the fiddle along with his son Arville, who played the guitar
Jan 18 Makbule Atadan the sister of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey. She was the only one surviving sister of Atatürk, while the other four siblings died at early ages
Jan 18 Konstantin Päts the most influential politician of interwar Estonia. He was one of the first Estonians to become active in politics and started an almost 40-year political rivalry with Jaan Tõnisson, first through journalism with his newspaper Teataja, later through politics. He was condemned to death during the 1905 Revolution, but managed to flee first to Switzerland, then to Finland, where he continued his literary work. He returned to Estonia, but had to spend time in prison in 1910–1911
Jan 19 Nikolai Panin a Russian figure skater and coach. He won the gold medal in special figures in the 1908 Summer Olympics. Panin was Russia's first Olympic champion
Jan 22 Renato Ricci an Italian fascist politician active during the government of Benito Mussolini.
Jan 23 Alexander Korda a Hungarian-born British film producer and director. He worked in Hollywood the first time during the transition to "talkies", from 1926 to 1930. The change led to divorce from his first wife, a popular Hungarian actress who could not make the transition because of her strong accent in English
Jan 23 Daniel Swarovski an Austrian glass cutter and jeweller born in Bohemia. His father was a Slovak glass cutter who owned a small glass factory, and Swarovski first learned the art of glass-cutting in his father's factory. In 1892 he patented an electric cutting machine that facilitated the production of lead crystal glass jewellery
Jan 27 Erich Kleiber an Austrian conductor.
Jan 28 Marie Juchacz a German social reformer.
Jan 29 H. L. Mencken Henry Louis "H. L." Mencken was an American journalist, essayist, magazine editor, satirist, critic of American life and culture, and scholar of American English. Known as the "Sage of Baltimore", he is regarded as one of the most influential American writers and prose stylists of the first half of the twentieth century. Many of his books remain in print
Jan 30 Charlie Taylor (mechanic) a vital contributor of mechanical skills in the building and maintaining of early Wright engines and airplanes.
Jan 31 A. A. Milne an English author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various children's poems. Milne was a noted writer, primarily as a playwright, before the huge success of Pooh overshadowed all his previous work
Feb 2 Charley Grapewin an American vaudeville performer and a stage and film actor, and comedian who portrayed Aunt Em's husband, Uncle Henry in MGM's The Wizard of Oz and Grandpa Joad in the film The Grapes of Wrath.
Feb 2 Truxtun Hare an American track and field athlete who competed in the hammer throw and All rounder events. He was also an American football player for the University of Pennsylvania from 1897 to 1900. Hare is one of only a handful of men to earn All-American honors during all four years of college. He was selected as a charter member of the College Football Hall of Fame in 1951. While primarily a guard, he also ran, punted, kicked off, and drop-kicked extra points
Feb 2 Pyotr Konchalovsky a Russian painter, a member of Jack of Diamonds group.
Feb 3 Johnny Claes a racing driver, born and raised in London, England who competed for Belgium. Before his fame as a racing driver, Claes was also a jazz trumpeter and successful bandleader in Britain
Feb 3 Émile Borel a French mathematician and politician. As a mathematician, he was known for his founding work in the areas of measure theory and probability
Feb 4 Savielly Tartakower a leading Polish and French chess grandmaster. He was also a leading chess journalist and author of the 1920s and 30s whose books remain popular even today. Tartakower is remembered for his sharp wit and aphorisms
Feb 7 Isabelle Vengerova a Russian, later American, pianist and music teacher.
Feb 8 Connie Mack an American professional baseball player, manager, and team owner. The longest-serving manager in Major League Baseball history, he holds records for wins , losses , and games managed , with his victory total being almost 1,000 more than any other manager
Feb 9 Léon Huybrechts a Belgian sailor and Olympic champion. He competed at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, where he won a gold medal in the monotype class. He received silver medals in the 6m class in 1908 and 1920
Feb 10 Leonora Speyer an American poet and violinist.
Feb 10 Vikentii Trofimov a Russian painter.
Feb 10 Wilbert Coffin a Canadian prospector who was convicted of murder and executed in Canada. Montreal journalist, editor, author and politician Jacques Hebert raised doubt as to Coffin's guilt in J'accuse les assassins de Coffin, published in 1963. The book led to a royal commission which upheld the conviction. See more at Coffin Affair
Feb 11 Sergey Blazhko a Russian and Soviet astronomer, a corresponding member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. He was a graduate of Moscow University and held a number of positions there including head of the Moscow Observatory from 1920-1931. He discovered a secondary variation of the amplitude and period of some RR Lyrae stars and related pulsating variables, now known as the Blazhko effect
Feb 13 Jan Łukasiewicz a Polish logician and philosopher born in Lwów, which, before the Polish partitions, was in Poland, Galicia, then Austria-Hungary. His work centred on analytical philosophy, mathematical logic, and history of logic. He thought innovatively about traditional propositional logic, the principle of non-contradiction and the law of excluded middle. Modern work on Aristotle's logic builds on the tradition started in 1951 with the establishment by Lukasiewicz of a revolutionary paradigm. The Lukasiewicz approach was reinvigorated in the early 1970s in a series of papers by John Corcoran and Timothy Smiley--which inform modern translations of Prior Analytics by Robin Smith in 1989 and Gisela Striker in 2009. Lukasiewicz is still regarded as one of the most important historians of logic
Feb 14 Walter Cowan a British Royal Navy admiral who saw service in both World War I and World War II; in the latter he was one of the oldest British servicemen on active duty.
Feb 15 Vincent de Moro-Giafferi a French criminal attorney.
Feb 16 Meghnad Saha a Indian astrophysicist best known for his development of the Saha equation, used to describe chemical and physical conditions in stars.
Feb 17 Mikhail Rasumny a Soviet- and American film actor.
Feb 18 Gustave Charpentier a French composer, best known for his opera Louise.
Feb 20 Heinrich Barkhausen a German physicist.
Feb 21 Edwin Franko Goldman one of America's prominent band composers of the early 20th century. He composed over 150 works, but is best known for his marches. He founded the renowned Goldman Band of New York City and the American Bandmasters Association. Goldman's works are characterized by their pleasant and catchy tunes, as well as their fine trios and solos. He also encouraged audiences to whistle/hum along to his marches. He wrote singing and whistling into the score of "On the Mall"
Feb 22 Alexandros Svolos a prominent Greek legal expert, who also served as president of the Political Committee of National Liberation, a Resistance-based government during the Axis Occupation of Greece.
Feb 24 Gerrit Smith Miller an American zoologist and botanist.
Feb 25 Jacob Levitzki an Israeli mathematician.