Born on April 1

1220 Emperor Go-Saga the 88th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. This reign spanned the years 1242 through 1246
1328 Blanche of France Duchess of Orléans the posthumous daughter of King Charles IV of France and his third wife Jeanne d'Évreux.
1510 Alexander II of Imereti a king of Georgia in 1478 and of Imereti from 1483 to 1510.
1543 François de Bonne Duke of Lesdiguières soldier of the French Wars of Religion and Constable of France.
1578 William Harvey an English physician. He was the first known to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart, though earlier writers had provided precursors of the theory. After his death the William Harvey Hospital was constructed in the town of Ashford, several miles from his birthplace of Folkestone
1613 Charles de Saint-Évremond a French soldier, hedonist, essayist and literary critic. After 1661, he lived in exile, mainly in England, as a consequence of his attack on French policy at the time of the peace of the Pyrenees. He is buried in Poets' Corner, Westminster. He wrote for his friends and did not intend his work to be published, although a few of his pieces were leaked in his lifetime. The first full collection of his works was published in London in 1705, after his death
1621 Guru Tegh Bahadur also known as Hind-di-Chaadar for protecting Hindus and Sikhs against forced conversion in the hands of Muslims under Aurangzeb, became the 9th Guru of Sikhs on 16 April 1664, a position earlier occupied by his grand-nephew, Guru Har Krishan. Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed on the orders of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi for resisting the forced conversions of Hindus in Kashmir
1629 Jean-Henri d'Anglebert a French composer, harpsichordist and organist. He was one of the foremost keyboard composers of his day
1646 Hermann Otto II of Limburg Stirum the son of Adolf Ernst of Limburg Stirum and an imperial Field Marshal.
1647 John Wilmot 2nd Earl of Rochester an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court. The Restoration reacted against the "spiritual authoritarianism" of the Puritan era. Rochester was the embodiment of the new era, and he is as well known for his rakish lifestyle as his poetry, although the two were often interlinked. In 1669 he committed treason by boxing the ears of Thomas Killigrew in sight of the monarch, and in 1673 he accidentally delivered an insulting diatribe to the King. He died at the age of 33 from venereal disease
1682 Pierre-Joseph Thoulier d'Olivet a French abbot, writer, grammarian and translator. He was elected the fourth occupant of Académie française seat 31
1686 Jan Frans van Bredael the best known of a dynasty of painters, and the son of Alexander van Bredael , who was also an artist.
1693 Melusina von der Schulenburg Countess of Walsingham the natural daughter of King George I of Great Britain and his longtime mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Kendal.
1697 Antoine François Prévost a French author and novelist.
1700 Ulrich Frédéric Woldemar Comte de Lowendal a Danish, German-born French soldier and statesmen. Born in Hamburg, he served in the armies of several countries, but is best known for his service in the French army during the War of the Austrian Succession. In the French campaign in the Austrian Netherlands against the Pragmatic Army he served as a subordinate to Maurice de Saxe. He led French forces that captured Ghent in 1745 and Bergen-op-Zoom in 1747. The King of France, Louis XV, made him a Marshal of France for his success in capturing Bergen op Zoom
1721 Pieter Hellendaal an Anglo-Dutch composer, organist and violinist. He was sometimes distinguished with the suffix "The Elder", after the maturity of his musician son, Pieter Hellendaal the Younger
1730 Salomon Gessner a Swiss painter and poet. His writing suited the taste of his time, though by some more recent standards it is “insipidly sweet and monotonously melodious.” As a painter, he represented the conventional classical landscape
1741 George Dance the Younger an English architect and surveyor and a portraitist. The fifth and youngest son of the architect George Dance the Elder, he came from a family of architects, artists and dramatists. He was described by Sir John Summerson as "among the few really outstanding architects of the century", but few of his buildings remain
1742 Bon-Joseph Dacier a French historian, philologist and translator from ancient Greek. He became a Chevalier de l'Empire , then Baron de l'Empire. He also served as curator of the Bibliothèque nationale
1746 Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis a French jurist and politician in time of the French Revolution and the First Empire. His son, Joseph Marie Portalis was a diplomat and statesman
1749 François Joseph de Gratet vicomte Dubouchage an artillery general, politician, and French Minister of Marine in 1792 and 1815, and Minister of Foreign Affairs 1792.
1750 Hugo Kołłątaj a Polish Roman Catholic priest, social and political activist, political thinker, historian and philosopher. He is seen as one of the most prominent figures of the Enlightenment in Poland
1753 Joseph de Maistre a Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat. He defended hierarchical societies and a monarchical State in the period immediately following the French Revolution. Maistre was a subject of the King of Piedmont-Sardinia, whom he served as member of the Savoy Senate , ambassador to Russia , and minister of state to the court in Turin
1759 José de Bustamante y Guerra a Spanish naval officer, explorer, and politician. He was a native of Corvera de Toranzo in Cantabria, Spain
1765 Luigi Schiavonetti born at Bassano in Venetia.
1774 Gustav von Rauch a Prussian general, chief of staff from 1812–1813, and Minister of War from 1837 to 1841. His daughter Rosalie, married Prince Albert of Prussia as second, morganatic, wife in 1850
1776 Sophie Germain a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by society, she gained education from books in her father's library and from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss. One of the pioneers of elasticity theory, she won the grand prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences for her essay on the subject. Her work on Fermat's Last Theorem provided a foundation for mathematicians exploring the subject for hundreds of years after. Because of prejudice against her gender, she was unable to make a career out of mathematics, but she worked independently throughout her life. In recognition of her contribution towards advancement of mathematics, an honorary degree was also conferred upon her by the University of Göttingen six years after her death. At the centenary of her life, a street and a girls' school were named after her. The Academy of Sciences established The Sophie Germain Prize in her honor
1786 William Mulready an Irish genre painter living in London. He is best known for his romanticizing depictions of rural scenes, and for creating Mulready stationery letter sheets, issued at the same time as the Penny Black postage stamp
1790 Auguste Couder a French painter and student of Jean-Baptiste Regnault and Jacques-Louis David. He joined the Académie des beaux-arts in 1839 and was an officer of the Légion d'honneur. He married Cornélie Stouf, daughter of the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Stouf
1795 Carl Anton von Meyer a German, Russified botanist and explorer.
1802 William Sharpey a Scottish anatomist and physiologist.
1803 Miles Joseph Berkeley an English cryptogamist and clergyman, and one of the founders of the science of plant pathology.
1814 Søren Jaabæk a Norwegian politician and farmer. Jaabæk is the longest-serving member of the Parliament of Norway in the history of Norway, and was one of the founders of the Liberal Party of Norway
1815 Edward Clark (governor) the eighth Governor of Texas. His term coincided with the beginning of the American Civil War
1815 Otto von Bismarck a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871 he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to preserve German hegemony in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. For historian Eric Hobsbawm, it was Bismarck, who "remained undisputed world champion at the game of multilateral diplomatic chess for almost twenty years after 1871, devoted himself exclusively, and successfully, to maintaining peace between the powers."
1819 Vikramatji Khimojiraj the ruler of Princely State of Porbandar belonging to Jethwa Rajput dynasty.
1822 Augustus Charles Hobart-Hampden an English naval captain and Ottoman admiral.
1823 Simon Bolivar Buckner an American soldier and politician who fought in the United States Army in the Mexican–American War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He later served as the 30th Governor of Kentucky
1824 Louis-Zéphirin Moreau a Canadian Roman Catholic priest and fourth Bishop of Saint-Hyacinthe, from 1875 to 1901.
1825 Archduchess Auguste Ferdinande of Austria the daughter of Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and his first wife Maria Anna of Saxony, and the wife of Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria.
1831 Albert Anker a Swiss painter and illustrator who has been called the "national painter" of Switzerland because of his enduringly popular depictions of 19th-century Swiss village life.
1835 James Fisk (financier) an American stockbroker and corporate executive who has been referred to as one of the "robber barons" of the Gilded Age.
1835 Josef Richard Vilímek (1835 – 1911) a Czech publisher. He established a well known publishing house and was father of publisher Josef Richard Vilímek
1837 Jorge Isaacs a Colombian writer, politician and soldier. His only novel, María, became one of the most notable works of the Romantic movement in Spanish-language literature
1842 Edmund Neupert a Norwegian pianist and composer.
1844 Nikolai Skrydlov an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy.
1845 Princess Eugenia Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg a daughter of Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg and his wife Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia. Although she was a member of the French House of Beauharnais, she was born and raised in her mother's native country, Russia
1847 Jules Crevaux a French doctor, soldier, and explorer. He is known for his multiple explorations into the interior of French Guiana and the Amazon
1851 Bernhard III Duke of Saxe-Meiningen the last reigning duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
1852 Edwin Austin Abbey an American artist, illustrator, and painter. He flourished at the beginning of what is now referred to as the "golden age" of illustration, and is best known for his drawings and paintings of Shakespearean and Victorian subjects, as well as for his painting of Edward VII's coronation. His most famous work, The Quest of the Holy Grail, resides in the Boston Public Library