Born on April 10

401 Theodosius II Eastern Roman Emperor from 408 to 450. He is mostly known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, and for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople. He also presided over the outbreak of two great christological controversies, Nestorianism and Eutychianism
943 Landulf I of Benevento a Lombard nobleman and the Prince of Benevento and of Capua from 12 January 901, when his father, Atenulf I, prince of Capua and conqueror of Benevento, associated his with him in power.
1018 Nizam al-Mulk a Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire. He held near absolute power for 20 years after the assassination of Alp Arslan in 1072
1055 Conrad II Duke of Bavaria the duke of Bavaria from 1054 to 1055. He was the second son of the Emperor Henry III and his second wife, Agnes of Poitou. He was briefly appointed duke of Bavaria, which had been held by his elder brother Henry. He died soon after and was replaced by Henry
1151 Igor Svyatoslavich a Rus’ prince. His baptismal name was Yury. Igor was prince of Putivl , of Novgorod-Seversk , and of Chernigov
1270 Haakon V of Norway king of Norway from 1299 until 1319.
1480 Philibert II Duke of Savoy the Duke of Savoy from 1497 until his death.
1487 William I Count of Nassau-Dillenburg a count of Nassau-Dillenburg from the House of Nassau. He was not wealthy; his nickname the Rich refers to him having many children
1502 Otto Henry Elector Palatine Count Palatine of Palatinate-Neuburg from 1505 to 1559 and prince elector of the Palatinate from 1556 to 1559. He was a son of Rupert, Count Palatine, third son of Philip, Elector Palatine; and of Elizabeth of Bavaria-Landshut, daughter of George of Bavaria
1512 James V of Scotland King of Scots from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss. His only surviving legitimate child, Mary, succeeded him to the throne when she was just six days old
1569 Countess Emilia of Nassau the third and youngest daughter of William the Silent and his second wife Anna of Saxony.
1579 Augustus the Younger Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In the estate division of the House of Welf of 1635, he received the Principality of Wolfenbüttel
1583 Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa the fourth Spanish governor and captain-general of the Philippines from April 1580 until his death in 1583. He was succeeded by his nephew, Diego Ronquillo
1583 Hugo Grotius a jurist in the Dutch Republic. With Francisco de Vitoria and Alberico Gentili he laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. He was also a philosopher, theologian, Christian apologist, playwright, historiographer, poet, statesman and diplomat
1616 Trijntje Keever alleged to be the tallest female person in recorded history, standing 9 Amsterdam feet or 2.54 metres tall at the time of her death at age seventeen.
1626 Franz Egon of Fürstenberg the elder son of Egon VIII of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg , who served with distinction as a Bavarian general in the Thirty Years' War.
1651 Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus a German mathematician, physicist, physician, and philosopher. He is considered by some to have been the inventor of European porcelain, an invention long accredited to Johann Friedrich Böttger but others claim porcelain had been made by English manufacturers at an even earlier date
1656 René Lepage de Sainte-Claire the lord-founder of the town of Rimouski, province of Quebec, in Canada.
1704 Benjamin Heath an English classical scholar and bibliophile.
1707 Michel Corrette a French organist, composer and author of musical method books.
1707 John Pringle a Scottish physician who has been called the "father of military medicine".
1713 John Whitehurst a clockmaker and scientist, and made significant early contributions to geology. He was an influential member of the Lunar Society
1727 Samuel Heinicke born in Nautschutz, Germany.
1737 Sir George Staunton 1st Baronet an employee of the East India Company and a botanist.
1739 Domenico Cirillo an Italian physician, entomologist, botanist and patriot.
1749 Georg Prochaska a leading Czech-Austrian anatomist, ophthalmologist, physiologist, writer and university professor. He wrote the first genuine textbook on physiology and created the concept of nerve conduction among other theories. He was a staunch promoter of the modern reflex theory
1755 Samuel Hahnemann a German physician, best known for creating a system of alternative medicine called homeopathy.
1760 White Watson an early English geologist, sculptor, stonemason and carver, marble-worker and mineral dealer. In common with many learned people of his time, he was skilled in a number of artistic and scientific areas, becoming a writer, poet, journalist, teacher, botanist and gardener as well as a geologist and mineralogist. He kept extensive diaries and sketchbooks of his observations on geology, fossils and minerals, flora and fauna, and published a small but significant and influential number of geological papers and catalogues. As an artist he was well known locally for his silhouettes, both on paper and as marble inlays
1761 Jacques-Edme Dumont a French sculptor.
1762 Giovanni Aldini a brother of the statesman Count Antonio Aldini and nephew of Luigi Galvani, whose treaties on muscular electricity he edited with notes in 1791.
1766 John Leslie (physicist) a Scottish mathematician and physicist best remembered for his research into heat.
1769 Jean Lannes a Marshal of the Empire. He was one of Napoleon's most daring and talented generals. Napoleon once commented on Lannes: "I found him a pygmy and left him a giant". A personal friend of the emperor, he was allowed to address him with the familiar "tu", as opposed to the formal "vous"
1778 William Hazlitt an English writer, remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, as the greatest art critic of his age, and as a drama critic, social commentator, and philosopher. He was also a painter. He is now considered one of the great critics and essayists of the English language, placed in the company of Samuel Johnson and George Orwell. Yet his work is currently little read and mostly out of print. During his lifetime he befriended many people who are now part of the 19th-century literary canon, including Charles and Mary Lamb, Stendhal, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and William Wordsworth
1783 Hortense de Beauharnais the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoleon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais. She later became the wife of the former's brother, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and the mother of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. She had also an illegitimate son, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, by her lover Charles Joseph, comte de Flahaut
1794 Matthew C. Perry a Commodore of the U.S. Navy and commanded a number of ships. He served in several wars, most notably in the Mexican-American War and the War of 1812. He played a leading role in the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. Perry was very concerned with the education of naval officers and helped develop an apprentice system that helped establish the curriculum at the United States Naval Academy. With the advent of the steam engine, he became a leading advocate of modernizing the U.S. Navy and came to be considered The Father of the Steam Navy in the US
1801 Julius Müller a German Protestant theologian.
1801 Princess Mathilde of Waldeck and Pyrmont a member of the House of Waldeck and Pyrmont and a Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont and a member of the House of Württemberg and a Duchess of Württemberg through her marriage to Duke Eugen of Württemberg.
1802 Johann Peter Lange a German Calvinist theologian of peasant origin.
1803 Johann Jakob Kaup a German naturalist. A proponent of natural philosophy, he believed in an innate mathematical order in nature and he attempted biological classifications based on the Quinarian system
1803 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg a German statesman, and the first Prime Minister of Prussia.
1806 Juliette Drouet a French actress. She abandoned her career on the stage after becoming the mistress of Victor Hugo, to whom she acted as a secretary and travelling companion. Juliette accompanied Hugo in his exile to the Channel Islands, and wrote thousands of letters to him throughout her life
1806 Leonidas Polk a Confederate general in the American Civil War who was once a planter in Maury County, Tennessee, and a second cousin of President James Polk. He also served as bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Louisiana and was for that reason known as Sewanee's Fighting Bishop
1808 Auguste Franchomme a French cellist and composer. For his contributions to music, he was decorated with the Légion d'honneur in 1884
1817 Konstantin Aksakov a Russian critic and writer, one of the earliest and most notable Slavophiles. He wrote plays, social criticism, and histories of the ancient Russian social order. His father Sergey Aksakov was a writer, and his younger brother Ivan Aksakov was a journalist
1818 Auguste Ambroise Tardieu a French medical doctor and the pre-eminent forensic medical scientist of the mid-19th century.
1823 Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb an American lawyer, author, politician, and Confederate States Army officer, killed in the Battle of Fredericksburg during the American Civil War.
1827 Lew Wallace an American lawyer, Union general in the American Civil War, governor of the New Mexico Territory, politician, diplomat, and author from Indiana. Among his novels and biographies, Wallace is best known for his historical adventure story, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ , a bestselling novel that has been called "the most influential Christian book of the nineteenth century."
1829 Johannes Janssen a Catholic priest and German historian born in Xanten. After graduating from the Rektoratsschule in Xanten he was educated at the universities of Münster, Leuven, Bonn and Berlin, afterwards becoming a teacher of history in Frankfurt-am-Main
1829 William Booth a British Methodist preacher who founded The Salvation Army and became its first General. The Christian movement with a quasi-military structure and government founded in 1865 has spread from London, England to many parts of the world and is known for being one of the largest distributors of humanitarian aid
1833 Granville Waldegrave 3rd Baron Radstock a British missionary and a Peer of Ireland.