Born on April 12

811 Muhammad al-Jawad the ninth of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'ism. His given name was Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn Mūsā, and among his titles, al-Taqī and al-Jawād are the most renowned. Muhammad al-Taqī was the shortest-lived of the Twelve Imāms, dying at the age of 25
901 Eudokia Baïana the third wife of Leo VI the Wise.
1116 Richeza of Poland Queen of Sweden queen of Sweden and princess of Minsk through her three marriages.
1432 Anne of Austria Landgravine of Thuringia a Duchess of Luxembourg in her own right, and as consort, Landgravine of Thuringia and of Saxony.
1484 Rana Sanga the Rajput ruler of Mewar, which was located within the geographic boundaries of present-day India's modern state of Rajasthan. He ruled between 1509 and 1527
1484 Antonio da Sangallo the Younger an Italian architect active during the Renaissance.
1500 Joachim Camerarius a German classical scholar.
1526 Muretus the Latinized name of Marc Antoine Muret , a French humanist who was among the revivers of a Ciceronian Latin style and is among the usual candidates for the best Latin prose stylist of the Renaissance.
1537 Nabeshima Naoshige daimyo of Hizen from 1538 to 1618.
1539 Garcilaso de la Vega (chronicler) a chronicler and writer from the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. The son of a Spanish conquistador and an Inca noblewoman, he is recognized primarily for his contributions to Inca history, culture, and society. His work was influential, well-received, and particularly notable for being the first literature by an author born in the Americas to enter the western canon
1550 Edward de Vere 17th Earl of Oxford an English peer and courtier of the Elizabethan era. Oxford was heir to the second oldest earldom in the kingdom, a court favourite for a time, a sought-after patron of the arts, and noted by his contemporaries as a lyric poet and playwright, but his reckless and volatile temperament precluded him from attaining any courtly or governmental responsibility and contributed to the dissipation of his estate. Since the 1920s he has been the most popular alternative candidate proposed for the authorship of Shakespeare's works
1577 Christian IV of Denmark a monarch of the House of Oldenburg who ruled as King of Denmark-Norway from 1588 to 1648. His reign of more than 59 years is the longest of all Danish monarchs
1579 François de Bassompierre a French courtier.
1612 Simone Cantarini an Italian painter and etcher of the Bolognese School of painting.
1624 Charles Amadeus Duke of Nemours a French military leader and magnate. He was the father of the penultimate Duchess of Savoy and of a Queen of Portugal
1639 Martin Lister an English naturalist and physician.
1666 Pierre Le Gros the Younger a French sculptor, active almost exclusively in Baroque Rome. Nowadays, his name is commonly written Legros, while he himself always signed as Le Gros; he is frequently referred to either as 'the Younger' or 'Pierre II' to distinguish him from his father, Pierre Le Gros the Elder, who was also a sculptor. The "ardent drama" of his work and its Italian location make him more an Italian, than a French, sculptor. Despite being virtually unknown to the general public today, he was the pre-eminent sculptor in Rome for nearly two decades, until he was finally superseded at the end of his life by the more classicizing Camillo Rusconi
1670 Gustav Duke of Zweibrücken the Count Palatine of Kleeburg from 1701 until 1731 and the Duke of Zweibrücken from 1718 until 1731. His titles included: 5th Duke of Stegeborg , Pfalzgraf zur Rhein, and Herzog von Bayern
1705 William Cookworthy an English Quaker minister, a successful pharmacist and an innovator in several fields of technology.
1710 Caffarelli (castrato) an Italian castrato and opera singer, who took his stage name Caffarelli from Domenico Caffaro, his patron. Like Farinelli, Caffarelli was a student of Nicola Porpora
1713 Guillaume Thomas François Raynal a French writer and man of letters during the Age of Enlightenment.
1716 Felice Giardini an Italian composer and violinist.
1722 Pietro Nardini an Italian composer and violinist.
1724 Lyman Hall a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia. Hall County is named after him
1748 Antoine Laurent de Jussieu a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today. His classification was based on and extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu
1760 Jean-François Thomas de Thomon a French neoclassical architect who worked in Eastern Europe in 1791–1813. Thomas de Thomon was the author of Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns on the spit of Vasilievsky Island in Saint Petersburg and the first building of the Odessa Theatre, destroyed by fire in 1873. Thomas de Thomon, graduate of the French Academy in Rome, "imported" the high classicism practiced by this school in 1780s into Russia and thus contributed to the formation of Russian national variant of neoclassicism practiced during the reign of Alexander I
1773 Thomas Thomson (chemist) a Scottish chemist and mineralogist whose writings contributed to the early spread of Dalton's atomic theory.
1777 Henry Clay an American lawyer, politician, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives. He served three different terms as Speaker of the House of Representatives and was also Secretary of State from 1825 to 1829. He lost his campaigns for president in 1824, 1832 and 1844
1791 Francis Preston Blair an American journalist and politician.
1791 Provo Wallis a Royal Navy officer and naval war hero. He was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and was 100 years old when he died
1792 John Lambton 1st Earl of Durham a British Whig statesman, colonial administrator, Governor General and high commissioner of British North America.
1794 Germinal Pierre Dandelin a mathematician, soldier, and professor of engineering.
1796 George N. Briggs an American lawyer and politician from Massachusetts. A Whig, Briggs served for twelve years in the United States House of Representatives, and served seven one-year terms as the 19th Governor of Massachusetts, from 1844 to 1851
1799 Henri Druey a Swiss politician of the 19th century and a founding father of constitutional democracy in Switzerland.
1801 Joseph Lanner an Austrian dance music composer. He is best remembered as one of the earliest Viennese composers to reform the waltz from a simple peasant dance to something that even the highest society could enjoy, either as an accompaniment to the dance, or for the music's own sake. He was just as famous as his friend and musical rival Johann Strauss I, who was better known outside of Austria in their day because of his concert tours abroad, in particular, to France and England
1810 Heinrich von Rustige a German painter specializing in historical subjects and genres.
1813 Princess Marie of Orléans (1813–1839) a French princess and, by her marriage, duchess of Württemberg. She was solidly educated on her father's insistence, and took up sculpture and drawing
1821 Carl Bergmann (musician) a German-American cellist and conductor.
1823 Alexander Ostrovsky a Russian playwright, generally considered the greatest representative of the Russian realistic period. The author of 47 original plays, Ostrovsky "almost single-handedly created a Russian national repertoire." His dramas are among the most widely read and frequently performed stage pieces in Russia
1825 Ludwig Thiersch a German painter, primarily of mythological and religious subjects and especially of ecclesiastical art, also influential in Greece.
1828 Richard Arnold (general) a career U.S. Army officer who served as a brigadier general in the Union forces during the American Civil War. His artillery helped force the surrender of two important Confederate towns, including Mobile, Alabama
1828 Charles Foster (politician) a U.S. Republican politician from Ohio. Foster was the 35th Governor of Ohio, and later went on to serve as Secretary of the Treasury under Benjamin Harrison
1831 Grenville M. Dodge a Union army officer on the frontier and pioneering figure in military intelligence during the Civil War, who served as Ulysses Grant's intelligence Chief in the Western Theater. He served in several notable assignments, including command of the XVI Corps during the Atlanta Campaign
1831 Constantin Meunier a Belgian painter and sculptor, born in Etterbeek, Brussels.
1839 Nikolay Przhevalsky a Russian geographer and a renowned explorer of Central and East Asia. Although he never reached his ultimate goal, the holy city of Lhasa in Tibet, he traveled through regions then unknown to the West, such as northern Tibet , Amdo and Dzungaria. He contributed significantly to European knowledge of Central Asia and was the first known European to describe the only extant species of wild horse, which is named after him: Przewalski's horse
1839 Julius Lippert (historian) an Austrian cultural historian and politician in Bohemia.
1839 Victorin de Joncières a French composer and music critic.
1840 Franz Xaver Haberl a German musicologist, friend of Liszt, Perosi, and Singenberger, cleric, and student of Proske.
1840 George King (botanist) a British botanist appointed superintendent of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta in 1871, and the first Director of the Botanical Survey of India from 1890. King was awarded the Linnean Medal in 1901
1840 Edmond Audran a French composer best known for several internationally successful operettas, including Les noces d'Olivette , La mascotte , Gillette de Narbonne , La cigale et la fourmi , Miss Helyett , and La poupée.