Born on April 13

1229 Louis II Duke of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. Born in Heidelberg, he was a son of duke Otto II and Agnes of the Palatinate. She was a daughter of the Welf Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, her grandfathers were Henry XII the Lion and Conrad of Hohenstaufen
1350 Margaret III Countess of Flanders the last Countess of Flanders of the House of Dampierre, Countess of Artois and Countess Palatine of Burgundy and twice Duchess consort of Burgundy.
1458 John II Duke of Cleves a son of John I, Duke of Cleves and Elizabeth of Nevers. He ruled Cleves from 1481 to his death in 1521. He was called "The Babymaker" since he fathered sixty-three illegitimate children before his marriage with Mathilde of Hesse in 1490. She was the daughter of Henry III, Landgrave of Upper Hesse and his wife Anna of Katzenelnbogen
1506 Peter Faber the first Jesuit priest and theologian, who was also a co-founder of the Society of Jesus. Pope Francis announced his canonization on 17 December 2013
1519 Catherine de' Medici an Italian noblewoman who was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry As the mother of three sons who became kings of France during her lifetime she had extensive, if at times varying, influence in the political life of France. For a time she ruled France as its regent
1570 Guy Fawkes a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
1573 Christina of Holstein-Gottorp a Queen Consort of Sweden as consort of king Charles IX of Sweden, mother of king Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, and a Regent of Sweden. She served as regent in 1605, during the absence of her spouse, and in 1611, during the minority of her son
1593 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl of Strafford an English statesman and a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War. He served in Parliament and was a supporter of King Charles From 1632–39 he was Lord Deputy of Ireland. Recalled to England, he became a leading advisor to the king, attempting to strengthen the royal position against Parliament. When Parliament condemned him to death, Charles signed the death warrant and Wentworth was executed
1597 Giovanni Battista Hodierna an Italian astronomer at the court of the Duke of Montechiaro. He compiled a catalog of some 40 entries, including at least 19 real and verifiable nebulous objects that might be confused with comets. The work anticipated Messier's catalogue, but had little impact. Messier seems not to have known of it
1600 Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxe-Altenburg a member of the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin and a titular Duke of Saxe-Altenburg and of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.
1618 Roger de Rabutin Comte de Bussy a French memoirist. He was the cousin and frequent correspondent of Madame de Sévigné
1628 Peter Lambeck a German historian and librarian.
1636 Hendrik van Rheede a military man and a colonial administrator of the Dutch East India Company and naturalist. Between 1670 and 1677 he served as a governor of Dutch Malabar and employed twenty-five people on his book Hortus Malabaricus, describing 740 plants in the region. The plant Entada rheedii is named for him
1657 Sylvester Kossov an Eastern Orthodox Church metropolitan and writer. He served as metropolitan of Kiev during the Khmelnytsky uprising. His official title was Metropolitan of Kiev, Galychyna and All-Rus'
1710 Jonathan Carver a colonial Massachusetts explorer and writer. He was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts and then moved with his family to Canterbury, Connecticut. He later married Abigail Robbins and became a shoemaker. He is believed to have had seven children
1711 John Mitchell (geographer) a colonial American physician and botanist. He created the most comprehensive and perhaps largest 18th-century map of eastern North America, known today as the Mitchell Map. First published in 1755, in conjunction with the imminent Seven Years' War, the Mitchell Map was subsequently used during the Treaty of Paris to define the boundaries of the newly independent United States and remains important today for resolving border disputes
1713 Pierre Jélyotte a French operatic tenor, particularly associated with works by Rameau, Lully, Campra, Mondonville and Destouches.
1728 Paolo Frisi an Italian mathematician and astronomer.
1729 Thomas Percy (bishop of Dromore) Bishop of Dromore, County Down, Ireland. Before being made bishop, he was chaplain to George III. Percy's greatest contribution is considered to be his Reliques of Ancient English Poetry , the first of the great ballad collections, which was the one work most responsible for the ballad revival in English poetry that was a significant part of the Romantic movement
1732 Frederick North Lord North Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782. He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence. He also held a number of other cabinet posts, including Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer
1735 Isaac Low an American merchant in New York City.
1743 Thomas Jefferson an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence , and the third President of the United States. He was a spokesman for democracy, and embraced the principles of republicanism and the rights of the individual with worldwide influence. At the beginning of the American Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia, and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France and later the first United States Secretary of State serving under President George Washington. In opposition to Alexander Hamilton's Federalism, Jefferson and his close friend, James Madison, organized the Democratic-Republican Party, and later resigned from Washington's cabinet. Elected Vice President in 1796, Jefferson opposed Adams, and with Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts
1747 Armand Louis de Gontaut a French soldier and politician, known for the part he played in the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars.
1747 Gunning Bedford Jr. an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. He served in the Delaware General Assembly, as a Continental Congressman from Delaware and as a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787. He is often confused with his cousin, Gunning Bedford, an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution and Governor of Delaware
1747 Louis Philippe II Duke of Orléans a member of a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, the ruling dynasty of France. He actively supported the French Revolution and adopted the name Philippe Égalité, but was nonetheless guillotined during the Reign of Terror. His son Louis-Philippe became King of the French after the July Revolution of 1830. Following his career, the term Orléanist came to be attached to the movement in France that favoured constitutional monarchy
1748 Joseph Bramah an inventor and locksmith. He is best known for having invented the hydraulic press. Along with William George Armstrong, he can be considered one of the two fathers of hydraulic engineering
1755 Honoré Joseph Antoine Ganteaume a French Navy officer and Vice-admiral.
1756 Louis Henri Prince of Condé the Prince of Condé from 1818 to his death. He was the brother-in-law of Philippe Égalité and nephew of Victoire de Rohan
1758 Johann von Klenau a field marshal in the Habsburg army. Klenau joined the Habsburg military as a teenager and fought in Austria's wars with the Ottoman Empire, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars, in which he commanded a corps in several important battles
1759 Maximilian Hereditary Prince of Saxony German prince and a member of the House of Wettin.
1760 William Garrow a British barrister, politician and judge known for his indirect reform of the advocacy system, which helped usher in the adversarial court system used in most common law nations today. He introduced the phrase "presumed innocent until proven guilty", insisting that defendants' accusers and their evidence be thoroughly tested in court. Born to a priest and his wife in Monken Hadley, then in Middlesex, Garrow was educated at his father's school in the village before being apprenticed to Thomas Southouse, an attorney in Cheapside, which preceded a pupillage with Crompton, a special pleader. A dedicated student of the law, Garrow frequently observed cases at the Old Bailey; as a result Crompton recommended that he become a solicitor or barrister. Garrow joined Lincoln's Inn in November 1778, and was called to the Bar on 27 November 1783. He quickly established himself as a criminal defence counsel, and in February 1793 was made a King's Counsel by HM Government to prosecute cases involving treason and felonies
1762 Jean Étienne Championnet Vachier, called Championnet , French general, enlisted in the army at an early age and served in the Great Siege of Gibraltar.
1764 Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr a French commander in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars who rose to Marshal of France and Marquis.
1766 Jean Samuel Pauly born as Samuel Johann Pauli, was a famous gunsmith of the early 19th century. Pauly was born at Vechigen near Bern, Switzerland on 13 April 1766
1769 Thomas Lawrence a leading English portrait painter and president of the Royal Academy.
1771 Richard Trevithick a British inventor and mining engineer from Cornwall, Born in the mining heartland of Cornwall, Trevithick was immersed in mining and engineering from a young age. The son of a mining captain, he performed poorly in school, but went on to be an early pioneer of steam-powered road and rail transport. His most significant contribution was to the development of the first high-pressure steam engine. He also built the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive. On 21 February 1804 the world's first locomotive-hauled railway journey took place as Trevithick's unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren Ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales
1779 Friedrich von Müller (statesman) a German statesman.
1780 Alexander Mitchell (engineer) an Irish engineer who from 1802 was blind. He is known as the inventor of the screw-pile lighthouse. He was a native of Dublin, and received his formal education at Belfast Academy where he excelled in mathematics
1784 Friedrich Graf von Wrangel a Generalfeldmarschall of the Prussian Army. He was nicknamed Papa Wrangel and a member of the Baltic German noble family of Wrangel
1787 John Robertson (congressman) a nineteenth-century politician and lawyer from the U.S. state of Virginia. He was the brother of Thomas Robertson and Wyndham Robertson
1794 Jean Pierre Flourens a French physiologist, the founder of experimental brain science and a pioneer in anesthesia. Through the study of ablations on animals, he was the first to prove that the mind was located in the brain, not the heart
1797 Stanislas Julien a French sinologist who served as the Chair of Chinese at the Collège de France for over 40 years and was one of the most academically respected sinologists in French history.
1799 Ludwig Rellstab a German poet and music critic. He was born and died in Berlin. He was the son of the music publisher and composer Johann Carl Friedrich Rellstab. An able pianist, he published articles in various periodicals, including the influential liberal Vossische Zeitung, and launched the music journal Iris im Gebiete der Tonkunst, which was published in Berlin from 1830 to 1841. His outspoken criticism of the influence in Berlin of Gaspare Spontini landed him in jail in 1837
1800 Princess Elisabeth of Savoy a Princess of Savoy and the aunt and mother-in-law of Vittorio Emanuele II, the first king of a united Italy.
1802 Leopold Fitzinger an Austrian zoologist.
1808 Antonio Meucci an Italian inventor and also a friend and associate of the Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi. Meucci is best known for developing a voice-communication apparatus which several sources credit as the first telephone
1810 Félicien David a French composer.
1814 Théodolinde de Beauharnais a Franco-German princess. She was a granddaughter of Joséphine de Beauharnais, Napoleon's first wife
1820 Mariano Melgarejo the 18th President of Bolivia, from December 28, 1864, to January 15, 1871.
1824 William Alexander (bishop) an Irish cleric in the Church of Ireland.