Died on April 13

585 Hermenegild the son of king Leovigild of Visigothic Spain. He fell out with his father in 579, then revolted the following year. During his rebellion, he converted from Arian Christianity to Chalcedonian Christianity. Hermenegild was defeated in 584, and exiled. His death was later celebrated as a martyrdom due to the influence of Pope Gregory the Great's Dialogues, in which he portrayed Hermenegild as a "Catholic martyr rebelling against the tyranny of an Arian father."
814 Krum khan of Bulgaria during the First Bulgarian Empire from sometime after 796 but before 803 until his death in 814. During his reign the Bulgarian territory doubled in size, spreading from the middle Danube to the Dnieper and from Odrin to the Tatra Mountains. According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica his able and energetic rule brought law and order to Bulgaria and developed the rudiments of state organisation
862 Domnall mac Ailpín king of the Picts from 858 to 862. He followed his brother Kenneth I to the Pictish throne
989 Bardas Phokas the Younger an eminent Byzantine general who took a conspicuous part in three revolts for and against the ruling Macedonian dynasty.
1035 Herbert I Count of Maine the count of Maine from 1017 until his death. He had a turbulent career with an early victory that may have contributed to his later decline
1093 Vsevolod I of Kiev Yaroslavich , ruled as Grand Prince of Kiev from 1078 until his death.
1138 Simon I Duke of Lorraine the duke of Lorraine from 1115 to his death, the eldest son and successor of Thierry II and Hedwige of Formbach.
1141 Engelbert Duke of Carinthia Margrave of Istria and Carniola from sometime between 1101 and 1107 until 1124. In 1124, he was raised to a Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona which he held until his retirement in 1135
1275 Eleanor of Leicester the youngest child of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulême.
1577 Bartolomeo Scappi a famous Renaissance chef. His origins had been the subject of speculation, but a recent research shows that he came from the town of Dumenza in Lombardy, according to the inscription on a stone plaque in the church of Luino. Prior to this, the first known fact in his life had been that in April 1536, he organised a banquet while he was in the service of Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio. He served several other cardinals after this, then began to serve pope Pius IV, entering the service of the Vatican kitchen. He continued to work as a chef for the pope Pius V
1579 Uesugi Norimasa a daimyō of feudal Japan, and held the post of Kantō Kanrei, the Shogun's deputy in the Kantō. He is perhaps best known as the adoptive father of Uesugi Kenshin, one of the most famous warlords in Japanese history
1592 Bartolomeo Ammannati an Italian architect and sculptor, born at Settignano, near Florence. He studied under Baccio Bandinelli and Jacopo Sansovino and closely imitated the style of Michelangelo
1597 Klaus Fleming a Finnish-born member of the Swedish nobility and admiral, who played an important role in Finnish and Swedish history during the rise of Sweden as a Great Power. He was a trustee of Swedish kings John III and Sigismund Vasa
1612 Sasaki Kojirō a prominent Japanese swordsman widely considered a master of his craft, born in Fukui Prefecture. He lived during the Sengoku and early Edo periods and is most remembered for his death while battling Miyamoto Musashi in 1612
1622 Katharina Kepler an alleged German witch from Stuttgart, Württemberg, and the mother of the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler.
1635 Fakhr-al-Din II a Druze prince and an early leader of the Emirate of Chouf, a self-governed area under the Ottoman Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries. Son of Prince Qorqmaz ibn Maan and Sit Nasab of the Tanukhi family, he was given the title "Emir" or Prince in Arabic because the Maan family was pre-eminent in the Shouf and, periodically, a larger area. He is often referred to as "Fakhr ad-Din II" because of his grandfather Fakhr ad-Din He and members of his family were from time to time appointed Sanjakbeyi or governor/tax-farmer of districts like Sidon or Beirut. His period was characterized by economic and cultural prosperity, and he had fought other Lebanese families to unite the people of Lebanon and seek independence from the Ottoman Empire. He is therefore considered by some to be the first "Man of Lebanon" to seek the sovereignty of modern-day Lebanon. Others consider this to be anachronistic as his aims were more dynastic than national. However, the Ottomans eventually tired of this troublesome vassal. Sultan Murad IV had him executed with one or two of his sons on April 13, 1635
1638 Henri Duke of Rohan a French soldier, writer and leader of the Huguenots.
1641 Richard Montagu an English cleric and prelate.
1643 Margherita Farnese a daughter of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma and Infanta Maria of Guimarães. She was named after her father's mother Margaret of Parma, natural daughter of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
1652 Georges Fournier (Jesuit) a French Jesuit priest, geographer and mathematician.
1665 William Louis Prince of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen.
1684 Nicolás Antonio a Spanish bibliographer born in Seville.
1695 Jean de La Fontaine the most famous French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century. He is known above all for his Fables, which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France, and in French regional languages
1716 Arthur Herbert 1st Earl of Torrington a British admiral and politician of the late 17th and early 18th century. Cashiered as a rear-admiral by James II of England in 1688 for refusing to vote to repeal the Test Act, which prevented Catholics from holding offices, he brought the Invitation to William to The Hague, disguised as a simple sailor. As a reward he was made commander of William's invasion fleet during the Glorious Revolution
1722 Charles Leslie (nonjuror) an Anglican nonjuring divine.
1726 Antonio Palomino a Spanish painter of the Baroque period, and a writer on art, author of El Museo pictórico y escala óptica, which contains a large amount of important biographical material on Spanish artists.
1756 Johann Gottlieb Goldberg a German virtuoso harpsichordist, organist, and composer of the late Baroque and early Classical period. He is best known for lending his name, as the probable original performer, to the renowned Goldberg Variations of J.S. Bach
1763 James Waldegrave 2nd Earl Waldegrave a British statesman.
1773 Jakub Fontana a Polish architect of Italian origin, a representative of the Baroque and Neoclassicism styles, the court architect of Polish kings, and was knighted in 1764. He was the son of Józef II Fontana, and the brother of Jan Kanty Fontana
1785 Michel-François Dandré-Bardon a French history painter and etcher.
1793 Frederick Charles Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt a German Natural History collector, and from 1790 until his death the reigning Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
1794 Nicolas Chamfort a French writer, best known for his witty epigrams and aphorisms. He was secretary to Louis XVI's sister, and of the Jacobin club
1794 Lucile Duplessis the wife of the French revolutionary and journalist Camille Desmoulins. She was the daughter of Claude Etienne Laridon Duplessis, an official of the French Treasury, and Anne Françoise Marie Boisdeveix. Her sister, Adèle Duplessis, was briefly engaged to Maximilien Robespierre
1794 Pierre Gaspard Chaumette a French politician of the Revolutionary period.
1800 Kazimierz Poniatowski a Polish Szlachcic, podkomorzy wielki koronny , generał wojsk koronnych. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded on August 3, 1744 in Warsaw
1805 Pietro Arduino an Italian botanist. His official abbreviation is Ard
1807 Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily the eldest daughter of Ferdinand IV & III of Naples and Sicily and his wife, Marie Caroline of Austria. She was the last Holy Roman Empress and the first Empress of Austria
1811 Arkadi Suvorov a Russian general. A son of Alexander Suvorov, he rose to the rank of lieutenant general
1825 Princess Mathilde of Waldeck and Pyrmont a member of the House of Waldeck and Pyrmont and a Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont and a member of the House of Württemberg and a Duchess of Württemberg through her marriage to Duke Eugen of Württemberg.
1826 Franz Danzi a German cellist, composer and conductor, the son of the noted Italian cellist Innocenz Danzi. Born in Schwetzingen, Franz Danzi worked in Mannheim, Munich, Stuttgart and Karlsruhe, where he died
1827 Hugh Clapperton a Scottish naval officer and explorer of West and Central Africa.
1831 Ferdinand Kauer an Austrian composer and pianist.
1833 Elisa von der Recke a Baltic German writer and poet.
1836 Antoni Paweł Sułkowski a Polish division general and later overall commander of the armed forces of the Duchy of Warsaw.
1839 Domenico Ronconi an Italian operatic tenor who had an active international career in leading opera houses from 1796-1829. He then embarked on a second career as a voice teacher in Milan which lasted until his death in that city in 1839
1844 Mamiya Rinzō a Japanese explorer of the late Edo period.
1853 Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld a German Romantic painter, engraver and lithographer.
1853 Leopold Gmelin a German chemist. Gmelin was professor at the University of Heidelberg among other things, he worked on the red prussiate and created Gmelin's test
1853 James Iredell Jr. the 23rd Governor of the U.S. state of North Carolina between 1827 and 1828.
1855 Henry De la Beche an English geologist and palaeontologist, the first director of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, who helped pioneer early geological survey methods.