April 13 events in history

1111 Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor
1204 Constantinople falls to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, temporarily ending the Byzantine Empire
1598 Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots. (Edict repealed in 1685.)
1612 Miyamoto Musashi defeats Sasaki Kojirō at Funajima island
1613 Samuel Argall captures Native American princess Pocahontas in Passapatanzy, Virginia to ransom her for some English prisoners held by her father. She is brought to Henricus as hostage
1699 Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the Tenth Sikh Guru, Created Khalsa on this day at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab
1742 George Frideric Handel's oratorio Messiah makes its world-premiere in Dublin, Ireland
1777 American Revolutionary War: American forces are ambushed and defeated in the Battle of Bound Brook, New Jersey
1796 The first elephant ever seen in the United States arrives from India
1829 The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 gives Roman Catholics in the United Kingdom the right to vote and to sit in Parliament
1849 Hungary becomes a republic
1861 American Civil War: Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces
1868 The Abyssinian War ends as British and Indian troops capture Maqdala
1870 The New York City Metropolitan Museum of Art is founded
1873 The Colfax massacre, in which more than 60 African Americans are murdered, takes place
1902 James C. Penney opens his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming
1909 The Turkish military reverses the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 to force the overthrow of Sultan Abdul Hamid II
1919 The establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre: British troops gun down at least 379 unarmed demonstrators in Amritsar, India; at least 1200 are wounded
1919 Eugene V. Debs is imprisoned at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia, for speaking out against the draft during World War I
1941 A Pact of neutrality between the USSR and Japan is signed
1943 World War II: The discovery of mass graves of Polish prisoners of war killed by Soviet forces in the Katyń Forest Massacre is announced, causing a diplomatic rift between the Polish government in exile in London from the Soviet Union, which denies responsibility
1943 The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C., on the 200th anniversary of President Thomas Jefferson's birth
1944 Diplomatic relations between New Zealand and the Soviet Union are established
1945 World War II: German troops kill more than 1,000 political and military prisoners in Gardelegen, Germany
1945 World War II: Soviet and Bulgarian forces capture Vienna, Austria
1948 The Hadassah medical convoy massacre: In an ambush, 79 Jewish doctors, nurses and medical students from Hadassah Hospital and a British soldier are massacred by Arabs in Sheikh Jarra near Jerusalem
1953 CIA director Allen Dulles launches the mind-control program Project MKULTRA
1958 Cold War: American Van Cliburn wins the inaugural International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow
1960 The United States launches Transit 1-B, the world's first satellite navigation system
1964 At the Academy Awards, Sidney Poitier becomes the first African-American male to win the Best Actor award for the 1963 film Lilies of the Field
1970 An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, putting the crew in great danger and causing major damage to the spacecraft while en route to the Moon
1972 The Universal Postal Union decides to recognize the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate Chinese representative, effectively expelling the Republic of China administering Taiwan
1972 Vietnam War: The Battle of An Lộc begins
1974 Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches the United States' first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1
1975 Bus massacre in Lebanon: An attack by the Phalangist resistance kills 26 militia members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, marking the start of the 15-year Lebanese Civil War
1976 The United States Treasury Department reintroduces the two-dollar bill as a Federal Reserve Note on Thomas Jefferson's 233rd birthday as part of the United States Bicentennial celebration
1984 India moves into Siachen Glacier thus annexing more territory from the Line of Control
1987 Portugal and the People's Republic of China sign an agreement in which Macau would be returned to China in 1999
1992 The Great Chicago flood devastates much of central Chicago
1997 Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win the Masters Tournament
2014 A bus traveling from Villahermosa to Mexico City crashes into a tractor-trailer and catches fire, killing at least 36 people