Born on April 14

1126 Averroes the Latinized form of Ibn Rushd , full name ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rušd , was a mediæval Andalusian Muslim polymath. He wrote on logic, Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy, theology, the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, psychology, political and Andalusian classical music theory, geography, mathematics, and the mediæval sciences of medicine, astronomy, physics, and celestial mechanics. Averroes was born in Córdoba, Al Andalus , and died at Marrakesh in present-day Morocco. His body was interred in his family tomb at Córdoba. The 13th-century philosophical movement based on Averroes's work is called Averroism
1204 Henry I of Castile king of Castile. He was the son of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile
1527 Abraham Ortelius a Flemish cartographer and geographer, generally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. He is also believed to be the first person to imagine that the continents were joined together before drifting to their present positions
1572 Adam Tanner (mathematician) an Austrian Jesuit professor of mathematics and philosophy.
1578 Philip III of Spain King of Spain and Portugal.
1629 Christiaan Huygens a prominent Dutch mathematician and scientist. He is known particularly as an astronomer, physicist, probabilist and horologist
1668 Magnus Julius De la Gardie a Swedish general and statesman, member of the Swedish Hats Party.
1678 Abraham Darby I the first and most well known of three generations of that name. Born into an English Quaker family that played an important role in the Industrial Revolution, he developed a method of producing pig iron in a blast furnace fuelled by coke rather than charcoal. This was a major step forward in the production of iron as a raw material for the Industrial Revolution
1696 Princess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and the wife of her father's cousin Ferdinand Albert II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was the mother of the Queen of Prussia, Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Queen of Denmark and Norway
1699 Frederick III Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
1709 Charles Collé a French dramatist and songwriter.
1714 Adam Gib a Scottish religious leader, head of the Antiburgher section of the Scottish Secession Church.
1724 Gabriel de Saint-Aubin a French draftsman, printmaker, etcher and painter.
1728 Lekain the stage name of Henri Louis Cain , a French actor.
1738 William Cavendish-Bentinck 3rd Duke of Portland a British Whig and Tory statesman, Chancellor of the University of Oxford, Prime Minister of Great Britain, serving in 1783 and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1807 to 1809. The 24 years between his two terms as Prime Minister is the longest gap between terms of office of any Prime Minister. He was known before 1762 by the courtesy title Marquess of Titchfield. He held a title of every degree of British nobility—Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron. He is also a great-great-great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II through her maternal grandmother
1741 Emperor Momozono the 116th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1744 Denis Fonvizin a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today. His main works are two satirical comedies which mock contemporary Russian gentry
1747 Uvedale Price a Herefordshire landowner who was at the heart of the 'Picturesque debate' of the 1790s.
1756 Antin Angelovych the first Metropolitan Archbishop of the re-built Metropolitan of Lviv from 1808 until his death in 1814.
1764 Firmin Didot a French printer, engraver, and type founder. He invented the word "stereotype", which in printing refers to the metal printing plate created for the actual printing of pages , and used the process extensively, revolutionizing the book trade by his cheap editions. His manufactory was a place of pilgrimage for the printers of the world
1765 Princess Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt the mother of King Ludwig I of Bavaria.
1768 Wilhelm von Dörnberg a German general. He was also known as 'Aufstandsdörnberg' or 'Uprising Dörnberg', for his part in the German campaign of the Napoleonic Wars. He also fought as a brigade commander at Quatre Bras and Waterloo
1769 Barthélemy Catherine Joubert a French general. He joined the royal French army in 1784 and rose rapidly in rank during the French Revolutionary Wars. Napoleon Bonaparte recognized his talents and gave him increased responsibilities. Joubert was killed while commanding the French army at the Battle of Novi in 1799
1773 Jean-Baptiste de Villèle a French statesman. Several time Prime minister, he was a leader of the Ultra-royalist faction during the Bourbon Restoration
1775 Karl Becker (philologist) a German physician, educationalist, and philologist. He wrote a German grammar. His deductive approach to comparative philology was later discredited
1782 Carlo Coccia an Italian opera composer. He was known for the genre of opera semiseria
1788 David G. Burnet an early politician within the Republic of Texas, serving as interim President of Texas , second Vice President of the Republic of Texas , and Secretary of State for the new state of Texas after it was annexed to the United States of America.
1790 Albrecht Agthe a German music teacher.
1796 Benjamin Bonneville a French-born officer in the United States Army, fur trapper, and explorer in the American West. He is noted for his expeditions to the Oregon Country and the Great Basin, and in particular for blazing portions of the Oregon Trail
1800 John Appold a British fur dyer and engineer. Appold was the son of a fur-skin dyer, established in Finsbury. Succeeding to his father's business at the age of twenty-two, he introduced into it so many scientific improvements that he soon amassed a considerable fortune and was able to devote his time and attention to his favourite mechanical pursuits. His inventions, though numerous and evincing very great ingenuity, were not of the very highest class
1801 Fedor Solntsev a Russian painter and historian of art. His artwork was a major contribution in recording and preserving medieval Russian culture, which was a common subject of his paintings. He was the main author of the fundamental work Antiquities of Russian Stata , the main decorator of interiors of the Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow. He discovered and restored mosaics and frescoes of Saint Sophia's Cathedral and Cathedral of the Dormition of Kiev Pechersk Lavra in Kiev, and of Cathedral of Saint Demetrius in Vladimir. Fedor Solntsev, together with Metropolitan Philaret and Archimandrite Photius Spassky are considered the founders of modern Russian icon painting canon synthesizing ancient Russian traditions, post-Petrine efforts and modern art discoveries
1803 Friedrich von Amerling an Austro-Hungarian portrait painter in the court of Franz Josef. He was born in Vienna and was court painter between 1835 and 1880. With Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller he is one of the outstanding Austrian portrait painters of the 19th century
1808 Manuel Isidoro Belzu president of Bolivia from 1848 to 1855.
1811 Félix Le Couppey a French music teacher, pianist and composer of a series of elementary études for piano students.
1812 George Grey a soldier, explorer, Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Cape Colony , the 11th Premier of New Zealand and a writer.
1814 Henri Lehmann a German-born French historical painter and portraitist.
1814 Dimitri Kipiani a Georgian statesman, publicist, writer and translator. A leader of Georgia's liberal nobility, he was known for his work in support of the Georgian culture and society, a cause that led to his 1886 exile and murder at the hands of Russian Imperial authorities. In 2007 he was canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church as a saint
1817 Georg von Kameke a Prussian General of the Infantry and Minister of War.
1818 Marie of Saxe-Altenburg Queen of Hanover and the consort of George V, a grandson of George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte.
1820 Harry T. Hays an American Army officer serving in the Mexican-American War and a general who served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.
1827 Augustus Pitt Rivers an English army officer, ethnologist, and archaeologist. He was noted for innovations in archaeological methodology, and in the museum display of archaeological and ethnological collections. His international collection of about 22,000 objects was the founding collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum at the University of Oxford while his collection of English archaeology from the area around Stonehenge forms the basis of the collection at The Salisbury Museum in Wiltshire. Throughout most of his life he used the surname Lane Fox, under which his early archaeological reports are published. In 1880 he adopted the Pitt Rivers name on inheriting from Lord Rivers an estate of more than 32000 acres in Cranborne Chase. His name will ever be a prominent landmark in the history of the progress of archaeology and ethnology
1831 Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs a German geographer, explorer, author and adventurer.
1842 Catherine Eddowes one of the victims in the Whitechapel murders. She was the second person killed in the early hours of Sunday 30 September 1888, a night which already had seen the murder of Elizabeth Stride less than an hour earlier. These two murders are commonly referred to as the "double event" and have been attributed to the mysterious serial killer known as Jack the Ripper
1842 Adna Chaffee a Lieutenant General in the United States Army. Chaffee took part in the American Civil War and Indian Wars, played a key role in the Spanish-American War, and fought in the Boxer Rebellion in China. He was the Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1904 to 1906, overseeing far-reaching transformation of organization and doctrine in the Army
1843 Prince Albert of Saxe-Altenburg a German prince of the ducal house of Saxe-Altenburg.
1844 Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1844–1899) fifth child and second-eldest daughter of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and his wife Maria Theresa of Austria. Through her marriage to Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany, Maria Immaculata became an Archduchess of Austria and a Princess of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia. She was a Dame of the Star Cross Order
1852 Meijer de Haan a Dutch painter.
1852 Maximilian Berlitz a linguist and the founder of the Berlitz Language Schools, the first of which he established in 1878 in Providence, Rhode Island.
1854 Martin Lipp an Estonian poet. He is best known as the author of the poem "The Estonian Flag", which was set to the music of the then young composer Enn Võrk. That song became as popular to the Estonian people as the "Marseillaise" was to the French in the times of the French Revolution and also played an important role in the time of the Second Awakening in late 1980s
1857 Aluísio Azevedo a Brazilian novelist, caricaturist, diplomat, playwright and short story writer. Initially a Romantic writer, he would later adhere to the Naturalist movement. He introduced the Naturalist movement in Brazil with the novel O Mulato, in 1881