Born on April 18

963 Stephen Lekapenos the second son of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos , and co-emperor from 924 to 945. Along with his younger brother Constantine he deposed Romanos I in December 944, only to be themselves overthrown and exiled by the legitimate emperor Constantine VII a few weeks later. Stephen lived out his life in exile on the island of Lesbos, where he died on Easter 963
1115 Gertrude of Süpplingenburg a Margravine consort of Austria and Tuscany and a Duchess consort of Saxony and Bavaria. She was a member of the Süpplingenburg dynasty
1446 Ippolita Maria Sforza a member of the powerful Italian condottieri Sforza family which ruled the Duchy of Milan from 1450 until 1535. She was the first wife of Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, who later reigned as King Alfonso II of Naples
1480 Lucrezia Borgia the daughter of Pope Alexander VI and Vannozza dei Cattanei. Her brothers included Cesare Borgia, Giovanni Borgia, and Gioffre Borgia
1503 Henry II of Navarre born at Sangüesa, was the King of Navarre from 1517, although his kingdom had been reduced to a small territory north of the Pyrenees by the Spanish conquest of 1512. Henry succeeded his mother, Queen Catherine, and her husband, King John III
1521 François de Coligny d'Andelot one of the leaders of French Protestantism during the French Wars of Religion. The son of Gaspard I de Coligny, he was the younger brother of Odet, cardinal de Châtillon and Gaspard de Coligny the admiral
1589 John Duke of Östergötland a Swedish royal dynast. He was titular Duke of Finland 1590–1606 and reigning Duke of Östergötland 1606–18
1590 Ahmed I the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617.
1605 Giacomo Carissimi an Italian composer. He is one of the most celebrated masters of the early Baroque or, more accurately, the Roman School of music
1620 Winston Churchill (1620–1688) an English soldier, historian, and politician. He was the father of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, as well as an ancestor of his 20th-century namesake, Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill
1666 Jean-Féry Rebel an innovative French Baroque composer and violinist.
1674 Charles Townshend 2nd Viscount Townshend a British Whig statesman. He served for a decade as Secretary of State, directing British foreign policy. He was often known as Turnip Townshend because of his strong interest in farming turnips and his role in the British agricultural revolution
1685 Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de la Jonquière Marquis de la Jonquière a French admiral and Governor General of New France from March 1, 1749 until his death in 1752.
1729 Gaétan Vestris born in Florence and made his debut at the opera in 1749.
1734 Elsa Beata Bunge a Swedish, botanist, writer and noble.
1740 Sir Francis Baring 1st Baronet an English merchant banker, a member of the Baring family, later becoming the first of the Baring baronets.
1759 Thomas Thorild a Swedish poet, critic, feminist and philosopher.
1759 Jacques Widerkehr an Alsatian composer and cellist of the classical era. He was born in Strasbourg in 1759 and began his career as a freelance cellist in Paris in 1783. His oboe sonatas were composed around 1794
1766 Louis Milon a French ballet dancer, choreographer, and ballet master.
1768 Jean-Baptiste Debret a French painter, who produced many valuable lithographs depicting the people of Brazil.
1771 Karl Philipp Prince of Schwarzenberg an Austrian field marshal.
1772 David Ricardo a British political economist. He was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith, and James Mill. He began his professional life as a broker and financial market speculator. He amassed a considerable personal fortune, largely from financial market speculation and, having retired, bought a seat in the U.K. Parliament. He held his parliamentary seat for the last four years of his life. Perhaps his most important legacy is his theory of comparative advantage, which suggests that a nation should concentrate its resources solely in industries where it is most internationally competitive and trade with other countries to obtain products not produced nationally. In essence, Ricardo promoted the idea of extreme industry specialization by nations, to the point of dismantling internationally competitive and otherwise profitable industries. In this thinking Ricardo assumed the existence of a national industry policy aimed at promoting some industries to the detriment of others. For Ricardo some form of Central Economic Planning was a given. Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage has been challenged by, among others, Joan Robinson and Piero Sraffa, but remains the cornerstone of the argument in favour of international free trade as a means of increasing economic prosperity. The theory of comparative advantage was the forerunner of the push towards globalization via increased international trade, the guiding theme in economic policy currently promoted by the OECD and the World Trade Organization
1773 Giuseppina Grassini a noted Italian contralto, and a singing teacher. She was also a lover of both Napoleon and the Duke of Wellington
1774 Madhavrao II Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India, from a young age. He was known as Sawai Madhav Rao or Madhav Rao Narayan. He was the posthumous son of Narayanrao Peshwa, murdered in 1773 on the orders of Raghunathrao Madhavrao was considered the legal heir, and was brought to power as peshwa by the treaty of Salbai in 1782
1782 Georg August Goldfuss a German palaeontologist, zoologist and botanist.
1788 Charles de Steuben a German-born French Romantic portrait painter and lithographer active during the Napoleonic Era.
1798 Antonio Rolla an Italian violin and viola virtuoso and composer.
1799 François Mathias René Leprieur a French pharmacist and naturalist. Throughout his career, he collected specimens in the fields of entomology, ichthyology and botany
1800 Anton Eleutherius Sauter an Austrian botanist.
1804 Marc Athanase Parfait Œillet des Murs a French amateur ornithologist and local politician and historian.
1805 Giuseppe De Notaris an Italian botanist generally known for his work with cryptogams native to Italy.
1806 Ludwig Schuberth (composer) a German composer.
1807 Lorenzo Lyons an early missionary to the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was a songwriter who composed "Hawaiʻi Aloha", which was inducted into the Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame in 1998. Lyons spent the last 28 years of his life as postmaster in the district surrounding Waimea, Hawaii County, Hawaii
1812 August Carl Eduard Baldamus a German ornithologist.
1812 Carl Ferdinand von Arlt an Austrian ophthalmologist born in Ober-Graupen, a village near Teplitz in Bohemia.
1813 Franz Ittenbach a German religious painter from Königswinter, at the foot of the Drachenfels.
1813 James McCune Smith an American physician, apothecary, abolitionist, and author. He is the first African American to hold a medical degree and graduated at the top in his class at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. He was the first African American to run a pharmacy in the United States
1813 László Szalay a Hungarian statesman and historian.
1819 Franz von Suppé an Austrian composer of light operas from the Kingdom of Dalmatia, Austro-Hungarian Empire. A composer and conductor of the Romantic period, he is notable for his four dozen operettas
1822 August Heinrich Petermann a German cartographer.
1828 Octave Gréard a noted French educator.
1831 Eduard von Martens a German zoologist.
1835 François Perrier a French soldier and geodesist.
1838 Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran a French chemist known for his discoveries of the chemical elements gallium, samarium and dysprosium.
1839 Henry Kendall (poet) a nineteenth-century Australian author and bush poet, who was particularly known for his poems and tales set in a natural environment setting.
1839 Frantz Jehin-Prume a Canadian violinist, composer, and music educator of Belgian birth. He began his career as a highly successful concert violinist in Europe. From 1865 on he lived and worked mainly in Montreal, Canada; becoming one of the most important 19th century musical figures in Quebec. He became a naturalized Canadian citizen in 1868
1842 Antero de Quental a Portuguese poet, philosopher and writer, whose works became a milestone in the Portuguese language, alongside those of Camões or Bocage.
1847 Hermann Osthoff a German linguist. He was involved in Indo-European studies and the Neogrammarian school. He is known primarily for formulating Osthoff's law, but also published widely on Indo-European word-formation and morphology
1853 Vladimir Kokovtsov a Russian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Russia from 1911—1914, during the reign of Emperor Nicholas II.
1857 Clarence Darrow an American lawyer and leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union. He was best known for defending teenage thrill killers Leopold and Loeb in their trial for murdering 14-year-old Robert "Bobby" Franks. Some of his other big cases included defending Ossian Sweet, and John Scopes in the Scopes "Monkey" Trial , in which he opposed William Jennings Bryan. Called a "sophisticated country lawyer", he remains notable for his wit, which marked him as one of the most famous American lawyers and civil libertarians