Died on April 18

796 Æthelred I of Northumbria the king of Northumbria from 774 to 779 and again from 790 until he was murdered in 796. He was the son of Æthelwald Moll and Æthelthryth and possibly became king while still a child after Alhred was deposed
850 Perfectus one of the Martyrs of Córdoba whose martyrdom was recorded by Saint Eulogius in the Memoriale sanctorum.
1076 Beatrice of Bar She was the daughter of Frederick II, Duke of Upper Lorraine, who was also count of Bar, and Matilda of Swabia. She was married firstly to Boniface III of Tuscany and secondly to Godfrey of Lotharingia. Through her marriage to Boniface, she was marchioness of Tuscany from c.1037/8 to her death in 1076
1143 Gertrude of Süpplingenburg a Margravine consort of Austria and Tuscany and a Duchess consort of Saxony and Bavaria. She was a member of the Süpplingenburg dynasty
1161 Theobald of Bec Archbishop of Canterbury from 1139 to 1161. He was a Norman; his exact birth date is unknown. Some time in the late 11th or early 12th century Theobald became a monk at the Abbey of Bec, rising to the position of abbot in 1137. King Stephen of England chose him to be Archbishop of Canterbury in 1138. Canterbury's claim to primacy over the Welsh ecclesiastics was resolved during Theobald's term of office when Pope Eugene III decided in 1148 in Canterbury's favour. Theobald faced challenges to his authority from a subordinate bishop, Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester and King Stephen's younger brother, and his relationship with King Stephen was turbulent. On one occasion Stephen forbade him from attending a papal council, but Theobald defied the king, which resulted in the confiscation of his property and temporary exile. Theobald's relations with his cathedral clergy and the monastic houses in his archdiocese were also difficult
1162 Odo of Deuil an historian and participant of the Second Crusade.
1176 Galdino della Sala a Christian saint from Milan in northern Italy. He was a staunch supporter both of Pope Alexander III, and of Milan and its neighbours in Lombardy, in their joint and parallel struggles against the Antipope Victor IV, supported by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. He is remembered also for his charity in Milan to the poor and to those imprisoned for debt
1331 Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville de Raby a Norman nobleman and member of the powerful Neville family, son of Robert de Neville and Mary fitz Ranulf.
1335 Luther von Braunschweig the 18th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.
1552 John Leland (antiquary) an English poet and antiquary.
1555 Polydore Vergil an Italian humanist scholar, historian, priest and diplomat who spent most of his life in England. He is particularly remembered for his works the Proverbiorum libellus , a collection of Latin proverbs; De inventoribus rerum , a history of discoveries and origins; and the Anglica Historia , an influential history of England. He has been dubbed the "Father of English History"
1556 Luigi Alamanni an Italian poet and statesman. He was regarded as a prolific and versatile poet. He was credited with introducing the epigram into Italian poetry
1567 Wilhelm von Grumbach a German adventurer, chiefly known through his connection with the so-called “Grumbach Feud” , the last attempt of the Imperial Knights to prevail against the power of the territorial Princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
1587 John Foxe an English historian and martyrologist, the author of Actes and Monuments , an account of Christian martyrs throughout Western history but emphasizing the sufferings of English Protestants and proto-Protestants from the fourteenth century through the reign of Mary Widely owned and read by English Puritans, the book helped mould British popular opinion about the Catholic Church for several centuries.
1629 Catherine de' Medici Governor of Siena Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat as the second wife of Duke Ferdinando and Governor of Siena from 1627. She was the second daughter of Grand Duke Ferdinando I of Tuscany and his wife Christina of Lorraine. She had no issue
1636 Julius Caesar (judge) an English judge and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1589 and 1622. He was also known as Julius Adelmare alias Ceasar
1650 Simonds d'Ewes an antiquary and politician. He was bred for the bar, was a member of the Long Parliament and left notes on its transactions. d'Ewes took the Puritan side in the Civil War. His Journal of all the Parliaments of Elizabeth is of value; he left an Autobiography and Correspondence
1674 John Graunt one of the first demographers, though by profession he was a haberdasher.
1684 Gonzales Coques a Flemish Baroque painter.
1689 George Jeffreys 1st Baron Jeffreys a Welsh judge. He became notable during the reign of King James II, rising to the position of Lord Chancellor. His conduct as a judge was to enforce royal policy, resulting in a historical reputation for severity and bias
1690 Charles V Duke of Lorraine Karl Leopold, , son of Nicolas François, Duke of Lorraine, and Claude Françoise de Lorraine. Karl Leopold was born in Vienna and became the brother in law of Emperor Leopold and son in law of emperor Ferdinand III. He was a second cousin once removed of his contemporary Louis XIV through the king's grandmother Marie de' Medici.From a long established family of Lothringen, who had to take refuge from the forces of France. However, he managed to become the titular Duke of Lorraine in 1675 at a time when Lorraine was occupied by France. Since 1663 he had been in imperial Habsburg service and had a very notable military career. In 1675 he became imperial generalissimo
1694 William Hamilton Duke of Hamilton Duke of Hamilton in the Peerage of Scotland due to his marriage to Anne Hamilton, 3rd Duchess of Hamilton, which also allowed him to use his wife's subsidiary titles during his lifetime and to take the name Hamilton for him and their descendents. Born Lord William Douglas, he was the son of William Douglas, 1st Marquess of Douglas and his second wife Lady Mary Gordon, a daughter of George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly
1713 Dorothea Marie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg the wife of Ernst Ludwig I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. She was the daughter of Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and his first wife, Magdalena Sybille of Saxe-Weissenfels. She married Ernst Ludwig I on the 19 September 1704
1732 Louis Feuillée a French member of the Order of the Minims, explorer, astronomer, geographer, and botanist.
1758 Lorenz Heister a German anatomist, surgeon and botanist born in Frankfurt am Main.
1763 Marie-Josephte Corriveau one of the most popular figures in Québécois folklore. She lived in New France, and was sentenced to death by a British court martial for the murder of her second husband, was hanged for it and her body hanged in chains. Her story has become legendary in Quebec, and she is the subject of numerous books and plays
1788 Count Karl Leopold von Schlieben Royal Prussian Minister of War, between 1769 and 1772.
1794 Charles Pratt 1st Earl Camden an English lawyer, judge and Whig politician who was first to hold the title of Earl of Camden. As a lawyer and judge he was a leading proponent of civil liberties, championing the rights of the jury, and limiting the powers of the State in leading cases such as Entick v Carrington
1796 Johan Wilcke a Swedish physicist.
1802 Erasmus Darwin an English physician. One of the key thinkers of the Midlands Enlightenment, he was also a natural philosopher, physiologist, slave-trade abolitionist, inventor and poet. His poems included much natural history, including a statement of evolution and the relatedness of all forms of life. He was a member of the Darwin–Wedgwood family, which includes his grandsons Charles Darwin and Francis Galton. Darwin was also a founding member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, a discussion group of pioneering industrialists and natural philosophers. He turned down George III's invitation to be a physician to the King
1805 Apollo Mussin-Pushkin a Russian chemist and plant collector. He led a botanical expedition to the Caucasus in 1802 with his friend botanist Friedrich August Marschall von Bieberstein
1825 Franz Lauska a Moravian pianist, composer, and teacher of Giacomo Meyerbeer. Lauska was considered "one of the most brilliant executants of his time."
1827 Pierre François Joseph Durutte joined the French army at the beginning of the French Revolutionary Wars. Rapidly promoted for feats of bravery under fire at Jemappes in 1792 and Hondschoote in 1793, he found himself appointed to serve as a staff officer. He distinguished himself during the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in 1799 and received promotion to general officer. During the successful 1800 campaign he fought in Jean Victor Marie Moreau's army. Promoted again in 1803, his career then stalled because of his association with the banished Moreau and his unwillingness to see Napoleon Bonaparte as emperor
1829 Mahmud Shah Durrani born Prince and ruler of the Durrani Empire between 1801 and 1803, and again between 1809 and 1818. An ethnic Sadozai tribe section of the Popalzai sub clan of Durrani Abdali Pashtun, he was the son of Timur Shah Durrani and grandson of Ahmad Shah Durrani
1845 Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure a Swiss chemist and student of plant physiology who made seminal advances in phytochemistry.
1847 Edward Douglass White Sr. the tenth Governor of Louisiana and a member of the United States House of Representatives. He served five nonconsecutive terms in Congress as an adherent of Henry Clay of Kentucky and the Whig Party
1849 Carlo Rossi (architect) an Italian architect, who worked the major portion of his life in Russia. He was the author of many classical buildings and architectural ensembles in Saint Petersburg and its environments. In his lifetime, he built a theater on the Arbat Square and was rewarded with the Order of Vladimir of IV degree
1850 Gustav Ernst von Stackelberg a Russian diplomat of Baltic-German descent, and was the son of Otto Magnus von Stackelberg.
1853 William R. King an American politician and diplomat. He was the 13th Vice President of the United States for six weeks in 1853 before his death. Earlier he had been elected as a U.S. Representative from North Carolina and a Senator from Alabama. He also served as Minister to France during the reign of King Louis Phillippe
1854 Józef Elsner a composer, music teacher, and music theoretician, active mainly in Warsaw. He was one of the first composers in Poland to weave elements of folk music into his works
1855 Jean-Baptiste Isabey a French painter born at Nancy.
1859 Heinrich Friedrich von Arnim-Heinrichsdorff-Werbelow a Prussian statesman.
1859 Tatya Tope an Indian Brahmin Maratha leader in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and one of its more renowned generals. He was a personal adherent of Nana Saheb of Bithur. He progressed with the Gwalior contingent after the British reoccupation of Kanpur and forced General Windham to retreat from Kanpur. Later on, he came to the relief of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi and with her seized the city of Gwalior. However he was defeated by General Napier's British Indian troops at Ranod and after a further defeat at Sikar abandoned the campaign. Finally he was betrayed by his trusted friend Man Singh. He was executed by the British Government at Shivpuri on 18 April 1859
1864 Juris Alunāns a Latvian writer and philologist in the Russian Empire. He was one of the first contributors of Latvian language. He was one of the members of the Young Latvia movement
1865 Léon Jean Marie Dufour a French medical doctor and naturalist.
1867 Robert Smirke (architect) an English architect, one of the leaders of Greek Revival architecture, though he also used other architectural styles. As architect to the Board of Works he designed several major public buildings including the main block and facade of the British Museum, He was a pioneer of the use of concrete foundations
1869 Giuseppe Giacinto Moris an Italian botanist known for investigations of flora native to Sardinia.
1873 Justus von Liebig a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry. As a professor at the University of Giessen, he devised the modern laboratory-oriented teaching method, and for such innovations, he is regarded one of the greatest chemistry teachers of all time. He is considered the "father of the fertilizer industry" for his discovery of nitrogen as an essential plant nutrient, and his formulation of the Law of the Minimum which described the effect of individual nutrients on crops. He also developed a manufacturing process for beef extracts, and founded a company, Liebig Extract of Meat Company, that later trademarked the Oxo brand beef bouillon cube
1874 Robert J. Shuttleworth an English botanist and malacologist.
1877 Olivier Voutier a French naval officer who discovered the statue of the Venus de Milo in 1820, and fought in the Greek War of Independence.