Died on April 19

843 Judith of Bavaria (died 843) the daughter of Count Welf and Saxon noblewoman, Hedwig, Duchess of Bavaria. She was the second wife of King Louis the Pious, which brought her the title of Empress of the Franks. Marriage to Louis marked the beginning of her rise as an influential figure in the Carolingian court. She had two children with Louis, a daughter Gisela and a son, Charles the Bald. The birth of her son led to a major dispute over the imperial succession, and tensions between her and Charles' half-brothers from Louis' first marriage. She would eventually fall from grace when Charles' wife, the new empress Ermentrude of Orléans, rose to power. She was buried in 846 in Tours
1012 Ælfheah of Canterbury an Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Winchester, later Archbishop of Canterbury. He became an anchorite before being elected abbot of Bath Abbey. His perceived piety and sanctity led to his promotion to the episcopate, and eventually, to his becoming archbishop. Ælfheah furthered the cult of Dunstan and also encouraged learning. He was captured by Viking raiders in 1011 and killed by them the following year after refusing to allow himself to be ransomed. Ælfheah was canonised as a saint in 1078. Thomas Becket, a later Archbishop of Canterbury, prayed to him just before his own murder in Canterbury Cathedral
1013 Hisham II the third Caliph of Cordoba, of the Umayyad dynasty. He ruled 976–1009, and 1010–1013 in the Al-Andalus
1044 Gothelo I Duke of Lorraine the duke of Lower Lorraine from 1023 and of Upper Lorraine from 1033. He was also the margrave of Antwerp from 1005 and count of Verdun. Gothelo was the youngest son of Godfrey I, Count of Verdun, and Matilda Billung, daughter of Herman, Duke of Saxony. On his father's death, he received the march of Antwerp and became a vassal of his brother, Godfrey II, who became duke of Lower Lorraine in 1012. He succeeded his brother in 1023 with the support of the Emperor Henry II, but was opposed until Conrad II forced the rebels to submit in 1025. When the House of Bar, which ruled in Upper Lorraine, became extinct in 1033, with the death of his cousin Frederick III, Conrad made him duke of both duchies, so that he could assist in the defence of the territory against Odo II, count of Blois, Meaux, Chartres, and Troyes
1054 Pope Leo IX Pope from 12 February 1049 to his death in 1054. He was a German aristocrat and a powerful secular ruler of central Italy while holding the papacy. He is regarded as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, his feast day celebrated on 19 April
1390 Robert II of Scotland reigned as King of Scots from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce and of his first wife Isabella of Mar
1529 Johannes Cuspinian an Austrian humanist, scientist, diplomat, and historian. Born in Spießheim near Schweinfurt in Franconia, of which Cuspinianus is a Latinization, he studied in Leipzig and Würzburg. He went to Vienna in 1492 and became a professor of medicine at the University of Vienna. He became Rector of the university in 1500 and also served as Royal Superintendent until his death
1552 Olaus Petri a clergyman, writer, judge and major contributor to the Protestant Reformation in Sweden. His brother, Laurentius Petri , became the first Evangelical Lutheran Archbishop of Sweden
1560 Philipp Melanchthon a German reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems. He stands next to Luther and Calvin as a reformer, theologian, and molder of Protestantism. Along with Luther, he is the primary founder of Lutheranism. They both denounced what they believed was the exaggerated cult of the saints, asserted justification by faith, and denounced the coercion of the conscience in the sacrament of penance by the Catholic Church, that they believed could not offer certainty of salvation. In unison they rejected transubstantiation, the belief that the bread from the Lord's Supper becomes Christ's body when consumed. Melanchthon made the distinction between law and gospel the central formula for Lutheran evangelical insight. By the "law", he meant God's requirements both in Old and New Testament; the "gospel" meant the free gift of grace through faith in Jesus Christ
1567 Michael Stifel a German monk and mathematician. He was an Augustinian who became an early supporter of Martin Luther. He was later appointed professor of mathematics at Jena University
1578 Uesugi Kenshin a daimyo who ruled Echigo province in the Sengoku period of Japan.
1579 Uesugi Kagetora the seventh son of Hōjō Ujiyasu; he was adopted by Uesugi Kenshin, and was meant to be Kenshin's heir. However, in 1578, he was attacked in his castle at Ōtate by Uesugi Kagekatsu—Kagetora's respective brother-in-law—and was subsequently defeated. Kagetora committed suicide the following year
1588 Paolo Veronese an Italian Renaissance painter based in Venice, most famous for large history paintings of both religious and mythological subjects, such as The Wedding at Cana and The Feast in the House of Levi. With Titian, who was at least a generation older, and Tintoretto, ten years older, he was one of the "great trio that dominated Venetian painting of the cinquecento" or 16th-century late Renaissance. Veronese is known as a supreme colorist, and after an early period with Mannerist influence turned to a more naturalist style influenced by Titian
1604 Kuroda Yoshitaka a Japanese daimyo of the late Sengoku through early Edo periods. Renowned as a man of great ambition, he was a chief strategist and an adviser to Toyotomi Hideyoshi
1608 Thomas Sackville 1st Earl of Dorset an English statesman, poet, and dramatist. He was the son of Richard Sackville, a cousin to Anne Boleyn. He was a Member of Parliament and Lord High Treasurer
1618 Thomas Bastard an English clergyman famed for his published English language epigrams.
1623 Uesugi Kagekatsu a Japanese samurai daimyo during the Sengoku period and Edo period.
1629 Sigismondo d'India an Italian composer of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. He was one of the most accomplished contemporaries of Monteverdi, and wrote music in many of the same forms as the more famous composer
1645 Anthony van Diemen a Dutch colonial governor.
1658 Robert Rich 2nd Earl of Warwick an English colonial administrator, admiral, and Puritan.
1658 Kirsten Munk a Danish noble, the second spouse of King Christian IV of Denmark, and mother to twelve of his children.
1680 Marie Hedwig of Hesse-Darmstadt a Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen.
1686 Antonio de Solís y Ribadeneyra a Spanish dramatist and historian. His work includes drama, poetry, and prose, and he has been considered one of the last great writers of Spanish Baroque literature
1689 Christina Queen of Sweden Queen regnant of Sweden from 1633 to 1654, using the titles of Queen of Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, Grand Princess of Finland, and Duchess of Ingria, Estonia, Livonia and Karelia. She was the only surviving legitimate child of King Gustav II Adolph and his wife Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. As the heiress presumptive, at the age of six she succeeded her father on the throne of Sweden upon his death at the Battle of Lützen. Being the daughter of a Protestant champion in the Thirty Years' War, she caused a scandal when she abdicated her throne and converted to Roman Catholicism in 1654. She spent her later years in Rome, becoming a leader of the theatrical and musical life there. As a queen without a country, she protected many artists and projects. She is one of the few women buried in the Vatican grotto
1714 Cornelius Anckarstjerna a Swedish admiral of Dutch origin and a member of the Swedish House of Nobility.
1722 Charles Spencer 3rd Earl of Sunderland an English statesman from the Spencer family. He served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland , Lord Privy Seal , Lord President of the Council and First Lord of the Treasury
1733 Elizabeth Hamilton Countess of Orkney an English courtier from the Villiers family and the acknowledged mistress of William III & II, King of England and Scotland, from 1680 until 1695. She was a lady-in-waiting to his wife and co-monarch, Queen Mary II
1739 Nicholas Saunderson an English scientist and mathematician. According to one leading historian of statistics, he may have been the earliest discoverer of Bayes theorem
1768 Canaletto an Italian painter of landscapes, or vedute, of Venice. He was also an important printmaker in etching
1772 Johann Peter Kellner a German organist and composer. He was the father of Johann Christoph Kellner
1776 Jacob Emden a leading German rabbi and talmudist who championed Orthodox Judaism in the face of the growing influence of the Sabbatean movement. He was acclaimed in all circles for his extensive knowledge, thus Moses Mendelssohn, founder of the Jewish Enlightenment movement, wrote to him as "your disciple, who thirsts for your words." Although Emden did not approve of the Hasidic movement which evolved during his lifetime, his books are highly regarded amongst the Hasidim. Thirty-one works were published during his lifetime, ten posthumously while others remain in manuscript
1790 Grigory Spiridov a leading Russian naval commander and admiral.
1791 Richard Price a Welsh moral philosopher and nonconformist preacher. He was also a political pamphleteer, active in radical, republican, and liberal causes such as the American Revolution. He was well-connected and fostered communication between a large number of people, including Founding Fathers of the United States
1799 Pieter Hellendaal an Anglo-Dutch composer, organist and violinist. He was sometimes distinguished with the suffix "The Elder", after the maturity of his musician son, Pieter Hellendaal the Younger
1800 Jean-Antoine Marbot a French general and politician.
1809 Cyprian Godebski a Polish poet, novelist and father of writer Franciszek Ksawery. He was an outstanding poet of the so-called "Legions Poetry"
1813 Benjamin Rush a Founding Father of the United States. Rush was a civic leader in Philadelphia, where he was a physician, politician, social reformer, educator and humanitarian, as well as the founder of Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania
1822 Platon Zubov the last of Catherine the Great's favourites and the most powerful man in Russian Empire during the last years of her reign.
1824 Lord Byron an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement. Among Byron's best-known works are the lengthy narrative poems Don Juan and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and the short lyric She Walks in Beauty
1825 Marc-Auguste Pictet a physicist, chemist, meteorologist and astronomer from Geneva, Switzerland.
1828 Kiril Bagration an Imperial Russian general and official of Georgian origin, descended from the royal line of the Bagrationi-Mukhraneli of Kartli. He was a grandson of King Jesse of Kartli and uncle of General Pyotr Bagration of the Napoleonic Wars fame
1831 Johann Gottlieb Friedrich von Bohnenberger a German astronomer born at Simmozheim, Württemberg. He studied at the University of Tübingen. In 1798, he was appointed professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University
1833 James Gambier 1st Baron Gambier an admiral of the Royal Navy, who served as Governor of Newfoundland, and as a Lord of the Admiralty. He gained public distinction for his part in the Glorious First of June in 1794. He later survived an accusation of cowardice for his alleged inaction at the Battle of the Basque Roads
1836 Lev Mikhailovich Yashvil a Russian general of Georgian origin. He was a brother of General Vladimir Yashvil
1837 Friedrich Ancillon a Prussian historian and statesman.
1840 Jean-Jacques Lartigue a Canadian Sulpician, who served as the first Catholic Bishop of Montreal.
1844 John Carne a British traveller and author.
1854 John Davis (Massachusetts governor) an American lawyer, businessman and politician from Massachusetts. He spent 25 years in public service, serving in both houses of the United States Congress and for three non-consecutive years as Governor of Massachusetts. Because of his reputation for personal integrity he was known as "Honest John" Davis
1854 Robert Jameson a Scottish naturalist and mineralogist.
1860 Karol Podczaszyński a Polish architect, a representative of the neoclassical architecture and a professor of the Imperial University of Vilna, as well as one of the pioneers of industrial design.