April 19 events in history

65 The freedman Milichus betrayed Piso's plot to kill the Emperor Nero and all the conspirators are arrested
531 Battle of Callinicum: A Byzantine army under Belisarius is defeated by the Persian at Ar-Raqqah (northern Syria)
1012 Martyrdom of Ælfheah in Greenwich, London
1529 Beginning of the Protestant Reformation: After the Second Diet of Speyer bans Lutheranism, a group of rulers (German: Fürst) and independent cities (German: Reichsstadt) protests the reinstatement of the Edict of Worms
1539 Charles V and Protestants signs Treaty of Frankfurt
1677 The French army captures the town of Cambrai held by Spanish troops
1713 With no living male heirs, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, issues the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 to ensure that Habsburg lands and the Austrian throne would be inherited by his daughter, Maria Theresa of Austria (not actually born until 1717)
1770 Captain James Cook sights the eastern coast of what is now Australia
1770 Marie Antoinette marries Louis XVI in a proxy wedding
1775 American Revolutionary War: The war begins with an American victory in Concord during the battles of Lexington and Concord
1782 John Adams secures the Dutch Republic's recognition of the United States as an independent government. The house which he had purchased in The Hague, Netherlands becomes the first American embassy
1809 An Austrian corps is defeated by the forces of the Duchy of Warsaw in the Battle of Raszyn, part of the struggles of the Fifth Coalition. On the same day the Austrian main army is defeated by a First French Empire Corps led by Louis-Nicolas Davout at the Battle of Teugen-Hausen in Bavaria, part of a four-day campaign that ended in a French victory
1810 Venezuela achieves home rule: Vicente Emparan, Governor of the Captaincy General is removed by the people of Caracas and a junta is installed
1839 The Treaty of London establishes Belgium as a kingdom and guaranteeing its neutrality
1855 Visit of Napoleon III to Guildhall, London
1861 American Civil War: Baltimore riot of 1861: A pro-Secession mob in Baltimore, Maryland, attacks United States Army troops marching through the city
1892 Charles Duryea claims to have driven the first automobile in the United States, in Springfield, Massachusetts
1897 Léo Taxil exposes his own fabrications concerning Freemasonry
1903 The Kishinev pogrom in Kishinev (Bessarabia) begins, forcing tens of thousands of Jews to later seek refuge in Palestine and the Western world
1919 Leslie Irvin of the United States makes the first successful voluntary free-fall parachute jump using a new kind of self-contained parachute
1927 Mae West is sentenced to ten days in jail for obscenity for her play Sex
1928 The 125th and final fascicle of the Oxford English Dictionary is published
1942 World War II: In Poland, the Majdan-Tatarski ghetto is established, situated between the Lublin Ghetto and a Majdanek subcamp
1943 World War II: In Poland, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins, after German troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews
1948 Burma joins the United Nations
1950 Argentina becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty
1951 General Douglas MacArthur retires from the military
1954 The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan recognises Urdu and Bengali as the national languages of Pakistan
1956 Actress Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier of Monaco
1960 Students in South Korea hold a nationwide pro-democracy protest against president Syngman Rhee, eventually forcing him to resign
1971 Sierra Leone becomes a republic, and Siaka Stevens the president
1971 Vietnam War: Vietnam Veterans Against the War begin a five-day demonstration in Washington, D.C
1971 Launch of Salyut 1, the first space station
1971 Charles Manson is sentenced to death (later commuted life imprisonment) for conspiracy to commit the Tate/LaBianca murders
1973 The Portuguese Socialist Party is founded in the German town of Bad Münstereifel
1975 India's first satellite, Aryabhata, is launched
1984 Advance Australia Fair is proclaimed as Australia's national anthem, and green and gold as the national colours
1985 FBI siege on the compound of The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord (CSAL) in Arkansas
1985 U.S.S.R performs nuclear tests at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk
1987 The Simpsons premieres as a short cartoon on The Tracey Ullman Show
1989 A gun turret explodes on the USS Iowa, killing 47 sailors
1993 The 51-day siege of the Branch Davidian building outside Waco, Texas, USA, ends when a fire breaks out. Eighty-one people die
1993 South Dakota governor George Mickelson and seven others are killed when a state-owned aircraft crashes in Iowa
1995 Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, is bombed, killing 168
1997 The Red River Flood of 1997 overwhelms the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota. Fire breaks out and spreads in downtown Grand Forks, but high water levels hamper efforts to reach the fire, leading to the destruction of 11 buildings
1999 The German Bundestag returns to Berlin, the first German parliamentary body to meet there since the Reichstag was dissolved in 1933
2011 Fidel Castro resigns from the Communist Party of Cuba's central committee after 45 years of holding the title
2013 Boston Marathon bombings suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is captured while hiding in a boat inside a backyard in Watertown, Massachusetts