Born on April 21

866 Bardas a Byzantine noble and high-ranking minister. As the brother of Empress Theodora, he rose to high office under Theophilos. Although sidelined after Theophilos's death by Theodora and Theoktistos, in 855 he engineered Theoktistos's murder and became the de facto regent for his nephew, Michael III. Rising to the rank of Caesar, he was the effective ruler of the Byzantine Empire for ten years, a period which saw military success, renewed diplomatic and missionary activity, and an intellectual revival that heralded the Macedonian Renaissance. He was assassinated in 866 at the instigation of Michael III's new favourite, Basil the Macedonian, who a year later would usurp the throne for himself and install his own dynasty on the Byzantine throne
1132 Sancho VI of Navarre king of Navarre from 1150 until his death in 1194.
1393 John Capgrave an English historian, hagiographer and scholastic theologian.
1488 Ulrich von Hutten a German scholar, poet and reformer. He was an outspoken critic of the Roman Catholic Church and a bridge between the Renaissance humanists and the Lutheran Reformation. He was a leader of the Imperial Knights of the Holy Roman Empire
1523 Marco Antonio Bragadin a Venetian lawyer and military officer of the Republic of Venice.
1532 Martin Schalling the Younger a Protestant theologian, reformer and hymnwriter. He was the son of Martin Schalling the Elder
1555 Ludovico Carracci an Italian, early-Baroque painter, etcher, and printmaker born in Bologna. His works are characterized by a strong mood invoked by broad gestures and flickering light that create spiritual emotion and are credited with reinvigorating Italian art, especially fresco art, which was subsumed with formalistic Mannerism. He died in Bologna in 1619
1568 Frederick II Duke of Holstein-Gottorp a Danish-German nobleman. He was the eldest son of Duke Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife, Christine of Hesse
1575 Francesco Molin the 99th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on January 20, 1646 until his death. Molin's reign is notable because of Venice's participation in a prolonged war with the Ottoman Empire over Crete; this war was begun during the reign of Molin's predecessor Francesco Erizzo, and dragged on until 1669. To fund the cost of this war, Molin sold access to the Venetian patriciate at a cost of 100,000 ducats per person
1594 Bernardino Spada housed in the Palazzo Spada in Rome.
1605 Nyzette Cheveron an alleged Belgian witch. She is one of the victims of the witch hunt which took place in the Ardennes in Belgium, then the Spanish Netherlands, particularly around the area of Chevron, around the years of 1604–1605, which is perhaps the most known witch hunt in Belgian history
1619 Jan van Riebeeck a Dutch colonial administrator and founder of Cape Town.
1630 Pieter Gerritsz van Roestraten a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes and genre scenes.
1642 Simon de la Loubère a French diplomat, writer, mathematician and poet.
1651 Joseph Vaz an Oratorian priest and missionary in Ceylon.
1652 Michel Rolle a French mathematician. He is best known for Rolle's theorem. He is also the co-inventor in Europe of Gaussian elimination
1661 Georg Joseph Kamel a Czech Jesuit missionary and botanist to the Philippines. He is the author of the first descriptions of the Philippine flora and fauna. Also the first depiction of Philippine tarsier comes from Kamel. He was also the founder of the first Philippine Botanical Garden and first Philippine farmacy from where he treated a large population of the Luzon island. The well known genus of flowering plants Camellia was named in his honour by Carolus Linnaeus
1673 Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia, Archduchess consort of Austria etc. as the spouse of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
1696 Francesco de Mura an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period, active mainly in Naples and Turin. His late work reflects the style of neoclassicism
1713 Louis de Noailles a French peer and Marshal of France. He was the son of Françoise Charlotte d'Aubigné, niece of Madame de Maintenon, and a nephew of Marie Victoire de Noailles, daughter-in-law of Louis XIV of France
1730 Antonín Kammel a composer and violinist. His best-known composition is String Quartet 2
1735 Ivan Kulibin a Russian mechanic and inventor. He was born in Nizhny Novgorod in the family of a trader. From childhood, Kulibin displayed an interest in constructing mechanical tools. Soon, clock mechanisms became a special interest of his. His realizations as well as his prolific imagination inspired the work of many
1746 James Harris 1st Earl of Malmesbury an English diplomat.
1752 Humphry Repton the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century, often regarded as the successor to Capability Brown; he also sowed the seeds of the more intricate and eclectic styles of the 19th century. His first name is often incorrectly rendered "Humphrey"
1752 Pierre-Alexandre-Laurent Forfait a French engineer, hydrographer and politician, and Minister of the Navy.
1767 Duchess Elisabeth of Württemberg by birth a Duchess of Württemberg and by marriage an Archduchess of Austria.
1774 Philibert Jean-Baptiste Curial a general in the Napoleon army.
1774 Jean-Baptiste Biot a French physicist, astronomer, and mathematician who established the reality of meteorites, made an early balloon flight, and studied the polarization of light. Biot also discovered the mineral biotite
1775 Alexander Anderson (illustrator) an American illustrator.
1782 Friedrich Fröbel a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities. He created the concept of the “kindergarten” and also coined the word now used in German and English. He also developed the educational toys known as Froebel Gifts
1785 Charles Joseph comte de Flahaut a French general and statesman. He was the lover of Napoleon I's stepdaughter, Hortense de Beauharnais, Queen of Holland, by whom he had an illegitimate son, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph Demorny, known later as the Duc de Morny
1790 Manuel Blanco Encalada a Vice-Admiral in the Chilean Navy, a political figure, and Chile's first President.
1795 Vincent Pallotti an Italian ecclesiastic, born in Rome, and a saint. He was the founder of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate later to be known as Pious Society of Missions. The original name was restored in 1947. He is buried in the church of San Salvatore in Onda. He is considered the forerunner of Catholic Action
1799 Mihály Táncsics a Hungarian writer, teacher, journalist and politician.
1806 Henry Cohen (numismatist) a French numismatist, bibliographer and composer.
1810 John Putnam Chapin served as Mayor of Chicago, Illinois for the Whig Party.
1811 Alson Sherman served as Mayor of Chicago, Illinois for the Independent Democrat Party.
1814 Angela Burdett-Coutts 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts a nineteenth-century philanthropist, the daughter of Sir Francis Burdett, 5th Baronet and the former Sophia Coutts, daughter of banker Thomas Coutts. In 1837 she became one of the wealthiest women in England when she inherited her grandfather's fortune of around £1.8 million pounds sterling, following the death of her stepgrandmother, Harriot Mellon. She joined the surnames of her father and grandfather, by royal licence, to become Burdett-Coutts. Edward VII is reported to have described her as, "fter my mother, the most remarkable woman in the kingdom."
1816 Charlotte Brontë an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature. She published her best known novel, Jane Eyre, under the pen name Currer Bell
1816 Louis Wigfall an American politician from Texas who served as a member of the Texas Legislature, United States Senate, and Confederate Senate. Wigfall was among a group of leading secessionists known as Fire-Eaters, advocating the preservation and expansion of an aristocratic agricultural society based on slave labor. He briefly served as a Confederate Brigadier General of the Texas Brigade at the outset of the American Civil War before taking his seat in the Confederate Senate. Wigfall's reputation for oratory and hard-drinking, along with a combative nature and high-minded sense of personal honor, made him one of the more imposing political figures of his time
1816 Brontë family The Brontës were a nineteenth-century literary family associated with the village of Haworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England. The sisters, Charlotte , Emily , and Anne , are well known as poets and novelists. They originally published their poems and novels under the male pseudonyms Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell, much like many contemporary female writers. Their stories immediately attracted attention, although not always the best, for their passion and originality. Charlotte's Jane Eyre was the first to know success, while Emily's Wuthering Heights, Anne's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall and other works were later to be accepted as masterpieces of literature
1821 Thomas Stephens (historian) a Welsh apothecary, historian and critic. He was born at Pont Nedd Fechan, Glamorganshire, the son of a shoemaker. His works include The Literature of the Kymry , The History of Trial by Jury in Wales, and an essay in which he demolished the claim of the Welsh under Madoc to the discovery of America. He also wrote on the life and works of the bard Aneurin, and produced an English translation of Y Gododdin. The critical methods that he adopted in his works often made him unpopular with the less discriminating enthusiasts for the glory of Wales, but he earned the respect of serious scholars
1828 Hippolyte Taine a French critic and historian. He was the chief theoretical influence of French naturalism, a major proponent of sociological positivism and one of the first practitioners of historicist criticism. Literary historicism as a critical movement has been said to originate with him. Taine is particularly remembered for his three-pronged approach to the contextual study of a work of art, based on the aspects of what he called "race, milieu, and moment"
1830 Clémence Royer a self-taught French scholar who lectured and wrote on economics, philosophy, science and feminism. She is best known for her controversial 1862 French translation of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species
1831 George B. Anderson a career military officer, serving first in the antebellum U.S. Army and then dying from wounds inflicted during the American Civil War while a general officer in the Confederate Army. He was among six generals killed or mortally wounded at the Battle of Antietam in September 1862
1831 James Starley an English inventor and father of the bicycle industry. He was one of the most innovative and successful builders of bicycles and tricycles. His inventions include the differential gear and the perfection of chain-driven bicycles
1831 Ernest Besnier a French dermatologist and medical director of the Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris. He was a native of Honfleur, département Calvados
1834 Adrien René Franchet a French botanist, based at the Paris Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.
1837 Fredrik Bajer a Danish writer, teacher, and pacifist politician who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1908.
1838 John Muir a Scottish-American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is a prominent American conservation organization. The 211-mile John Muir Trail, a hiking trail in the Sierra Nevada, was named in his honor. Other such places include Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach, John Muir College, Mount Muir, Camp Muir and Muir Glacier