Born on April 22

1451 Isabella I of Castile queen of Castile and León. She and her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon, brought stability to the kingdoms that became the basis for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Holy Roman Emperor Charles After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganised the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects in the Spanish Inquisition, and for supporting and financing Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the New World. Isabella was granted the title Servant of God by the Catholic Church in 1974
1518 Antoine of Navarre the King of Navarre through his marriage to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death. He was the first monarch of the House of Bourbon, of which he was head from 1537. He was the father of Henry IV of France
1592 Wilhelm Schickard a German professor of Hebrew and Astronomy who became famous in the second part of the 20th century after Franz Hammer, a biographer of Johannes Kepler, claimed that the drawings of a calculating clock, predating the public release of Pascal's calculator by twenty years, had been discovered in two unknown letters written by Schickard to Johannes Kepler in 1623 and 1624.
1601 Charles Philip Duke of Södermanland a Swedish prince, Duke of Södermanland, Närke and Värmland. Charles Philip was the second surviving son of King Charles IX of Sweden and his second spouse, Duchess Christina of Holstein-Gottorp
1610 Pope Alexander VIII Pope from 6 October 1689 to his death in 1691. He is the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Alexander" upon his election to the papacy
1627 Tsarevna Irina Mikhailovna of Russia the eldest daughter of Tsar Michael of Russia from his second marriage to Eudoxia Streshneva, a noblewoman from Mozhaysk. She was the elder sister of Alexis of Russia
1645 Christine of Baden-Durlach a German noblewoman.
1658 Giuseppe Torelli an Italian violist, violinist, teacher, and composer.
1690 John Carteret 2nd Earl Granville a British statesman and Lord President of the Council from 1751 to 1763; effectively leader of the country when Spencer Compton was Prime Minister.
1707 Henry Fielding an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humour and satirical prowess, and as the author of the novel Tom Jones.
1711 Paul II Anton Prince Esterházy a prince of the Esterházy family. He had a distinguished career as a soldier and patron of music
1711 Eleazar Wheelock an American Congregational minister, orator, and educator in Lebanon, Connecticut, for 35 years before founding Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. He had tutored Samson Occom, a Mohegan who became a Presbyterian minister and the first Native American to publish writings in English. Before founding Dartmouth, Wheelock had founded and run the Moor's Charity School in Connecticut to educate Native Americans. The college was primarily for the sons of English colonists
1724 Immanuel Kant widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics
1729 Michael Hillegas the first Treasurer of the United States.
1738 Margravine Elisabeth Louise of Brandenburg-Schwedt a Prussian princess. She was a daughter of Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg-Schwedt and his wife Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia
1739 William Bartram an American naturalist. The son of Ann and John Bartram, William Bartram and his twin sister Elizabeth were born in Kingsessing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As a boy, he accompanied his father on many of his travels to the Catskill Mountains, the New Jersey Pine Barrens, New England, and Florida. From his mid-teens, Bartram was noted for the quality of his botanic and ornithological drawings. He also had an increasing role in the maintenance of his father's botanic garden, and added many rare species to it
1744 James Sullivan (governor) a lawyer and politician in Massachusetts. He was an early associate justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, served as the state's attorney general for many years, and as governor of the state from 1807 until his death
1754 José Antonio Pavón Jiménez a Spanish botanist known for researching the flora of Peru and Chile.
1757 Josef Grassi an Austrian portrait and history painter. His middle name is usually given as "Maria", although there is evidence that it was actually "Mathias". He is also called "Giuseppe Grassi"
1757 Alessandro Rolla an Italian viola and violin virtuoso, composer, conductor and teacher. His son, Antonio Rolla, was also a violin virtuoso and composer
1758 Francisco Javier Castaños 1st Duke of Bailén a Spanish general during the Peninsular War.
1760 Akbar II the penultimate Mughal emperor of India. He reigned from 1806 to 1837. He was the second son of Shah Alam II and the father of Bahadur Shah II
1766 Germaine de Staël a French woman of letters of Swiss origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. She was one of Napoleon's principal opponents. Celebrated for her conversational eloquence, she participated actively in the political and intellectual life of her times. Her works, both critical and fictional, made their mark on the history of European Romanticism
1772 Sir George Cockburn 10th Baronet a Royal Navy officer. As a captain he was present at the battle of Cape St Vincent in February 1797 during the French Revolutionary Wars and commanded the naval support at the reduction of Martinique in February 1809 during the Napoleonic Wars. He also directed the capture and burning of Washington on 24 August 1814 as an advisor to Major General Robert Ross during the War of 1812. He went on to be First Naval Lord and in that capacity sought to improve the standards of gunnery in the fleet, forming a gunnery school at Portsmouth; later he ensured that the Navy had latest steam and screw technology and put emphasis of the ability to manage seamen without the need to resort to physical punishment
1779 Ivan Kozlov a Russian Romantic poet and translator. As S. Mirsky noted, "his poetry appealed to the easily awakened emotions of the sentimental reader rather than to the higher poetic receptivity"
1780 Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg a daughter of Prince Charles Christian, Duke of Nassau-Weilburg and Carolina of Orange-Nassau, daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange. Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is her descendant through her granddaughter, Queen Mary of Teck. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is her descendant through her granddaughter Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg, who happens to be the grandmother of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark. Juan Carlos I of Spain is a descendant of her granddaughter Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria, the grandmother of Alfonso XIII of Spain
1781 José de Madrazo y Agudo a Spanish painter of the Neoclassic period. He was the father of the painters Federico de Madrazo and Luis de Madrazo
1781 Friedrich Christian Hermann Uber a German composer, who also served as the cantor of the Kreuzkirche in Dresden.
1789 Manuel Gómez Pedraza a Mexican general and president of his country from 1832 to 1833.
1792 Uriah P. Levy a naval officer, real estate investor, and philanthropist. He was a veteran of the War of 1812 and the first Jewish Commodore of the United States Navy. He was instrumental in helping to end the Navy's practice of flogging, and during his half-century-long service prevailed against the antisemitism he faced among some of his fellow naval officers
1797 Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille a French physicist and physiologist.
1801 Infanta Maria Francisca of Portugal a Portuguese infanta daughter of King John VI of Portugal and his spouse Carlota Joaquina of Spain.
1807 Luigi Palmieri an Italian physicist and meteorologist. He was famous for his scientific studies of the eruptions of Mount Vesuvius, for his researches on earthquakes and meteorological phenomena and for improving the seismographer of the time
1810 Hippolyte de Villemessant a conservative French journalist.
1811 Otto Hesse a German mathematician. Hesse was born in Königsberg, Prussia, and died in Munich, Bavaria. He worked on algebraic invariants. The Hessian matrix, the Hesse normal form, the Hesse configuration, the Hessian group, Hessian pairs, Hesse's theorem, and the Hesse pencil are named after him
1812 Solomon Caesar Malan a British divine and orientalist.
1812 Walthère Frère-Orban a Belgian liberal politician and statesman.
1812 James Broun-Ramsay 1st Marquess of Dalhousie a Scottish statesman, and a colonial administrator in British India. He served as Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856. To his supporters he stands out as the far-sighted Governor-General who consolidated East India Company rule in India, laid the foundations of its later administration, and by his sound policy enabled his successors to stem the tide of rebellion. To his critics, he stands out as the destroyer of both the East India Company's financial and military position through reckless policies. His critics also hold that he laid the foundations of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and led the final transformation of profitable commercial operations in India into a money-losing colonial administration. His period of rule in India directly preceded the transformation into the Victorian Raj period of Indian administration. He was denounced by many in England and India on the eve of his death as having failed to notice the signs of the brewing Indian Rebellion of 1857, having aggravated the crisis by his overbearing self-confidence, centralizing activity, and expansive annexations
1813 Jørgen Moe a Norwegian folklorist, bishop, poet and author. He is best known for the Norske Folkeeventyr, a collection of Norwegian folk tales which he edited in collaboration with Peter Christen Asbjørnsen
1814 William Pole an English engineer.
1815 Wilhelm Peters a German naturalist and explorer.
1816 Charles-Denis Bourbaki a French general.
1819 Hermann Hoffmann a German botanist and mycologist born in Rödelheim.
1819 Friedrich von Bodenstedt a German author.
1824 William H.C. Whiting an United States Army officer who resigned after 16 years of service in the Army Corps of Engineers to serve in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He was wounded at the Second Battle of Fort Fisher by a musket ball to his leg, and died in prison camp on March 10, 1865 of dysentery that entered his wounds
1825 Anson Stager the co-founder of Western Union, the first president of Western Electric Manufacturing Company and Union Army general, where he was head of the Military Telegraph Department during the Civil War.
1832 Julius Sterling Morton a Nebraska newspaper editor who served as President Grover Cleveland's Secretary of Agriculture. He was a prominent Bourbon Democrat, taking the conservative position on political, economic and social issues, and opposing agrarianism. In 1897 he started a weekly magazine entitled The Conservative
1834 Gaston Planté the French physicist who invented the lead-acid battery in 1859. The lead-acid battery eventually became the first rechargeable electric battery marketed for commercial use
1839 August W. Eichler a German botanist who modified the classification system to better reflect the relationships between plants.
1844 Lewis Powell (conspirator) one of the conspirators in league with John Wilkes Booth, assassin of President Abraham Lincoln. He failed in his attempt to assassinate Secretary of State William Seward on the same night