Born on April 24

1086 Ramiro II of Aragon King of Aragon from 1134 until withdrawing from public life in 1137. He was the youngest son of Sancho Ramírez, King of Aragon and Navarre and Felicia of Roucy
1252 Yuri I of Galicia a King of Ruthenia, Prince of Volhynia. His full title was Yuri I, King of Ruthenia, Great Prince of Kiev, Volydymyr-Volhynia, Halych, Lutsk, Dorohochyn
1492 Sabina of Bavaria born Duchess of Bavaria and became wife of Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg.
1533 William the Silent the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands
1538 Guglielmo Gonzaga Duke of Mantua Duke of Mantua and Montferrat from 1550 to 1587. He was the second son of Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Margaret Palaeologina of Montferrat. In 1574, Montferrat was elevated to a Duchy and he became its first duke. He was succeeded by his son Vincenzo
1562 Xu Guangqi a Chinese scholar-bureaucrat, agricultural scientist, astronomer, and mathematician in the Ming Dynasty. Xu was a colleague and collaborator of the Italian Jesuits Matteo Ricci and Sabatino de Ursis and they translated several classic Western texts into Chinese, including part of Euclid's Elements. He was also the author of the Nong Zheng Quan Shu, one of the first comprehensive treatises on the subject of agriculture. He was one of the "Three Pillars of Chinese Catholicism". His current title is Servant of God
1581 Vincent de Paul a priest of the Catholic Church who dedicated himself to serving the poor. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He was canonized in 1737. De Paul was renowned for his compassion, humility, and generosity and is known as the "Great Apostle of Charity"
1595 Ştefan Răzvan a Voivode of Moldavia of Romani descent from the historical Romanian state of Wallachia.
1620 John Graunt one of the first demographers, though by profession he was a haberdasher.
1703 José Francisco de Isla a Spanish Jesuit, celebrated as a preacher and a humorist and satirist of the stamp of Cervantes.
1706 Giovanni Battista Martini O.F.M. Conv. , also known as Padre Martini, or Giambattista Martini, was an Italian Conventual Franciscan friar, who was a leading musician and composer of the period
1718 Nathaniel Hone the Elder an Irish-born portrait and miniature painter, and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768.
1719 Giuseppe Marc'Antonio Baretti an Italian-born English literary critic and author of two influential language-translation dictionaries. During his England years he was often known as Joseph Baretti. Baretti's life was marred by controversies
1721 Johann Kirnberger a musician, composer , and music theorist. Possibly, though not verified, he was a pupil of Johann Sebastian Bach, visiting Leipzig in 1741. According to Ingeborg Allihn, Kirberger played a significant role in the intellectual and cultural exchange between Germany and Poland in the mid-1700s. Between 1741 and 1751 Kirnberger lived and worked in Poland for powerful magnates including Lubomirski, Poninski, and Rzewuski before ending up at the Benedictine Cloister in Lvov. He spent much time collecting Polish national dances and compiled them in his treatise Die Charaktere der Taenze. He became a violinist at the court of Frederick II of Prussia in 1751. He was the music director to the Prussian Princess Anna Amalia from 1758 until his death. Kirnberger greatly admired J.S. Bach, and sought to secure the publication of all of Bach's chorale settings, which finally appeared after Kirnberger's death; see Kirnberger chorale preludes. Many of Bach's manuscripts have been preserved in Kirnberger's library
1742 Richard Crosse a leading English painter of portrait miniatures. He was a contemporary of John Smart, George Engleheart, Richard Cosway and William Wood
1743 Edmund Cartwright an English inventor. He graduated from Oxford University very early and went on to invent the power loom. Married to local Elizabeth McMac at 19, he was the brother of Major John Cartwright, a political reformer and radical, and George Cartwright, explorer of Labrador
1750 Simon Antoine Jean L'Huilier a Swiss mathematician of French Hugenot descent. He is known for his work in mathematical analysis and topology, and in particular the generalization of Euler's formula for planar graphs
1763 Nikolay Zubov the eldest of the Zubov brothers who, together with Count Pahlen, masterminded the conspiracy to assassinate Tsar Paul of Russia.
1767 Jacques-Laurent Agasse an animal and landscape painter from Switzerland.
1771 Samuel Linde a linguist, librarian, and lexicographer of the Polish language. He was director of the Prussian-founded Warsaw Lyceum during its existence , and an important figure of the Polish Enlightenment
1774 Jean Marc Gaspard Itard a French physician born in Provence.
1777 Archduchess Maria Clementina of Austria an Austrian archduchess and the tenth child and third daughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Luisa of Spain. In 1797 she married her first cousin Hereditary Prince Francis of Naples, heir of Naples and Sicily. She was modest, well educated and kind becoming popular in her adoptive country. Afflicted with frail health, she died of tuberculosis, age twenty four. Her only surviving child was the famous duchesse de Berry
1784 Peter Vivian Daniel an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States.
1787 Mathieu Orfila a Spanish-born French toxicologist and chemist, the founder of the science of toxicology.
1788 Carl Mayer von Rothschild a German-born banker in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the founder of the Rothschild banking family of Naples.
1796 Karl Leberecht Immermann a German dramatist, novelist and a poet.
1800 Heinrich Wydler a Swiss botanist He spent the years 1826-27 on a collecting expedition to the West Indies; worked at the Petersburg botanical garden in 1828-30; was curator of the de Candolle botanical collections at the University of Geneva , 1830–4. He worked as a teacher in Geneva and Bern and after his marriage in 1840 settled in Strasbourg
1800 Georg Hellmesberger Sr. an Austrian violinist, conductor, and composer.
1801 Marthe Camille Bachasson Count of Montalivet a French statesman and a Peer of France.
1803 Alexander Dukhnovich a priest, poet, writer, pedagogue, and social activist of the Slavic peoples of the Carpathians. He is considered as the awakener of the Rusyns
1815 Anthony Trollope one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. Some of his best-loved works, collectively known as the Chronicles of Barsetshire, revolve around the imaginary county of Barsetshire. He also wrote perceptive novels on political, social, and gender issues, and on other topical matters
1817 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac a Swiss chemist whose work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei and whose study of the rare earth elements led to his discovery of ytterbium in 1878 and codiscovery of gadolinium in 1880.
1820 Antonino Gandolfo Brancaleone an Italian composer. His masterpiece was Il Sultano
1823 Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada a jurist and Liberal president of Mexico.
1825 R. M. Ballantyne Ballantyne was a Scottish author of juvenile fiction who wrote more than 100 books. He was also an accomplished artist, and exhibited some of his water-colours at the Royal Scottish Academy
1830 Princess Eugenie of Sweden a member of the Royal House of Bernadotte and a dilettante artist.
1831 George Nares a British naval officer and Arctic explorer. He commanded the first ship to pass through the Suez Canal, the Challenger Expedition and the British Arctic Expedition. He was highly thought of as a leader and scientific explorer. In later life he worked for the Board of Trade and as Acting Conservator of the River Mersey, and died in 1915 aged 83
1835 Benjamin Briggs an experienced United States seaman and master mariner. He is famous today for being the Captain of the merchant ship Mary Celeste when she was discovered unmanned and drifting in the Atlantic Ocean near the Straits of Gibraltar, on December 4, 1872. The lifeboat was missing, yet the Mary Celeste herself was still under sail and there were signs of a sudden and unexplained abandonment. Benjamin Briggs, his wife Sarah and two-year-old daughter Sophia Matilda, along with the crew of the Mary Celeste, and the lifeboat, were never found and presumed lost
1837 Friedrich von Holstein a statesman of the German Empire and served as the head of the political department of the German Foreign Office for more than thirty years. He played a major role in shaping foreign policy after Bismarck was dismissed in 1890
1838 Jules Levy (musician) a cornetist, teacher, and composer.
1841 Charles Sprague Sargent an American botanist. He was appointed in 1872 as the first director of Harvard University's Arnold Arboretum in Boston, Massachusetts, and held the post until his death. He published several works of botany. The standard botanical author abbreviation Sarg. is applied to plants he identified
1845 Carl Spitteler a Swiss poet who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1919 "in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring". His work includes both pessimistic and heroic poems
1846 Marcus Clarke an Australian novelist and poet, best known for his novel For the Term of His Natural Life.
1846 François Fournier (stamp forger) a stamp forger who thought of himself as a creator of "art objects" and a friend of the little man.
1849 Joseph Gallieni a French soldier, most active as a military commander and administrator in the French colonies and finished his career during the First World War. He was made Marshal of France posthumously in 1921. Historians such as Georges Blond, Basil Liddell Hart, and Henri Isselin credit Gallieni with being the guiding intelligence behind the French victory in the First Battle of the Marne in 1914. Gallieni is infamous in Madagascar as the French military leader who exiled Queen Ranavalona III and abolished the 350-year-old monarchy on the island
1853 Alphonse Bertillon a French police officer and biometrics researcher who applied the anthropological technique of anthropometry to law enforcement creating an identification system based on physical measurements. Anthropometry was the first scientific system used by police to identify criminals. Before that time, criminals could only be identified by name or photograph. The method was eventually supplanted by fingerprinting
1856 Philippe Pétain a French general who reached the distinction of Marshal of France, and was later Chief of State of Vichy France , from 1940 to 1944. Pétain, who was 84 years old in 1940, ranks as France's oldest head of state
1860 Gerhard Janensch a German sculptor and medailleur.
1861 Viktor Oliva a Czech painter and illustrator.
1862 Tomitaro Makino a pioneer Japanese botanist noted for his taxonomic work. He has been called "Father of Japanese Botany". He was one of the first Japanese botanists to work extensively on classifying Japanese plants using the system developed by Linnaeus. His research resulted in documenting 50,000 specimens, many of which are represented in his Makino's Illustrated Flora of Japan. Despite having dropped out of grammar school, he would eventually attain a Doctor of Science degree, and his birthday is remembered as Botany Day in Japan