Born on April 25

1194 Ezzelino III da Romano an Italian feudal lord in the March of Treviso who was a close ally of the emperor Frederick II and ruled Verona, Vicenza and Padua for almost two decades. He became infamous as a cruel tyrant though much of his sinister reputation may be due to the propaganda of his many enemies
1211 Frederick II Duke of Austria the Duke of Austria and the Duke of Styria from 1230 to his death in 1246. He was the fifth and last Duke of Austria from the House of Babenberg
1214 Louis IX of France a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached majority. During Louis's minority, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian crusade which had started 20 years earlier
1228 Conrad IV of Germany Duke of Swabia , King of Jerusalem , King of Germany , and of King of Sicily.
1284 Edward II of England King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir to the throne following the death of his older brother Alphonso. He grew up to be tall and athletic, and was considered good-looking by his contemporaries. From 1300 onward, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1307 he was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Edward succeeded to the throne later that year, following his father's death. In 1308, he married Isabella of France, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV, as part of a long-running effort to resolve the tensions between the English and French crowns
1287 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl of March an English nobleman and powerful Marcher lord who had gained many estates in the Welsh Marches and Ireland following his advantageous marriage to the wealthy heiress Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville. In November 1316, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1322 for having led the Marcher lords in a revolt against King Edward II in what became known as the Despenser War. He later escaped to France, where he was joined by Edward's queen consort Isabella, whom he took as his mistress. After he and Isabella led a successful invasion and rebellion, Edward was subsequently deposed; Mortimer allegedly arranged his murder at Berkeley Castle. For three years, Mortimer was de facto ruler of England before being himself overthrown by Edward's eldest son, Edward III. Accused of assuming royal power and other crimes, Mortimer was executed by hanging at Tyburn
1479 Sylvester of the River Obnora recognized as a saint. Sylvester was inspired by the teachings of Sergius of Radonez. He was trained at Trinity Monastery. Sylvester then went as a hermit to live along the banks of the River Obnora, living on either herbs or tree bark and roots. He nearly died but is said to have received sustenance from an angel that saved him. Later others joined him and he established a monastery
1502 Georg Major a Lutheran theologian of the Protestant Reformation. He was born in Nuremberg and died at Wittenberg
1529 Franciscus Patricius a philosopher and scientist from the Republic of Venice. He was known as a defender of Platonism and an opponent of Aristotelianism. In Croatia he is referred to as Frane Petrić. His family name in Cres was known as Petris
1562 Friedrich Wilhelm I Duke of Saxe-Weimar a duke of Saxe-Weimar. He was the eldest son of Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Dorothea Susanne of Simmern
1579 John Stewart 4th Earl of Atholl a Scottish noble.
1599 Oliver Cromwell an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
1608 Gaston Duke of Orléans the third son of King Henry IV of France and his wife Marie de Medici. As a son of the king, he was born a Fils de France. He later acquired the title Duke of Orléans, by which he was generally known during his adulthood. As the eldest surviving brother of King Louis XIII, he was known at court by the traditional honorific Monsieur
1621 Roger Boyle 1st Earl of Orrery a soldier, dramatist and politician from the British Isles who sat in the House of Commons of England at various times between 1654 and 1679. Lord Broghill, as Boyle was then called, fought in the Irish Confederate Wars and subsequently became known for his antagonism towards Irish Catholics and their political aspirations. He was a noted playwright and writer on 17th century warfare
1625 John Frederick Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy, from 1665 until his death.
1626 Sigmund von Birken a German poet of the Baroque.
1652 Giovanni Battista Foggini an Italian sculptor active in Florence, renowned mainly for small bronze statuary.
1652 Boris Sheremetev created the first Russian count in 1706, and was also a diplomat and general field marshal during the Great Northern War. His children included Pyotr Sheremetev and Natalia Sheremeteva. In his youth, Sheremetyev was a page to Tsar Alexis I before starting his military career. From 1671 he served at the imperial court. In 1681 he was a leader at Tambov, commanding the armies fighting the Crimean Khanate, and from 1682 he was a boyar. From 1685 to 1687 he participated in negotiations and the conclusion of the "Eternal Peace of 1686" with Poland and the allied treaty with Austria. From the end of 1687 he commanded the armies in Belgorod defending Russia's southern border, and participated in the Crimean campaigns. After Peter I gained power in 1689, he joined him as a fellow campaigner. He participated along with Mazepa in the war against Turkey during the 1690s. During the Azov campaigns in 1695–96 he commanded armies on the Dnieper River in actions against the Crimean Tatars. In 1697–99 he carried out diplomatic assignments in Poland, Austria, Italy and Malta. In 1698, czar Peter sent a delegation to Malta under Sheremetyev to observe the training and abilities of the Knights of Malta and their fleet. Sheremetyev also investigated the possibility of future joint ventures with the Knights, including action against the Turks and the possibility of a future Russian naval base
1666 Johann Heinrich Buttstett a German Baroque organist and composer. Although he was Johann Pachelbel's most important pupil and one of the last major exponents of the south German organ tradition, Buttstett is best remembered for a dispute with Johann Mattheson
1694 Richard Boyle 3rd Earl of Burlington The Hon. Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork, KG, PC , born in Yorkshire, England, was the son of The 2nd Earl of Burlington and 3rd Earl of Cork. Burlington was called 'the Apollo of the Arts' and 'the architect Earl', never taking more than a passing interest in politics despite his position as a Privy Counsellor and a member of both the British House of Lords and the Irish House of Lords
1710 James Ferguson (Scottish astronomer) a Scottish astronomer, instrument and globe maker.
1714 Emer de Vattel a Swiss philosopher, diplomat, and legal expert whose theories laid the foundation of modern international law and political philosophy. He was born in Couvet in Neuchatel, Switzerland in 1714 and died in 1767 of edema. He was largely influenced in his philosophy by Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff and strove to integrate their ideas into the legal and political system. He is most famous for his 1758 work Droit des gens; ou, Principes de la loi naturelle appliqués à la conduite et aux affaires des nations et des souverains. This work was his claim to fame and won him enough prestige to be appointed as a councilor to the court of King Augustus III of Saxony
1723 Giovanni Marco Rutini an Italian composer.
1725 Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller a German zoologist.
1725 Augustus Keppel 1st Viscount Keppel an officer of the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War and the War of American Independence. During the final years of the latter conflict he served as First Lord of the Admiralty
1730 Fedele Fenaroli an Italian composer and teacher. Fenaroli entered the Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto, one of the Music conservatories of Naples, becoming a pupil of Francesco Durante. In 1762 he was appointed Maestro di Cappella. Among his students were many celebrated Italian composers, such as Domenico Cimarosa, Nicola Antonio Zingarelli, and Saverio Mercadante. Giuseppe Verdi was a second-generation student, as his teacher, Vincenzo Lavigna, was a student of Fenaroli. Fenaroli wrote several treatises on music, which were widely used during the nineteenth century. As a composer, he wrote mainly sacred music
1764 Pierre-Jean Garat a French singer and nephew of Dominique Joseph Garat. He was born in Ustaritz
1767 Nicolas Oudinot a Marshal of France. He's known to have been wounded 34 times in battle
1769 Marc Isambard Brunel a French-born engineer who settled in England. He preferred the name Isambard, but is generally known to history as Marc to avoid confusion with his more famous son Isambard Kingdom Brunel. His most famous achievement was the construction of the Thames Tunnel
1770 Georg Sverdrup well known for being a member of Norwegian Constituent Assembly in Eidsvoll in 1814 and later the parliament. He was also responsible for building the first Norwegian university library. He was the uncle of the well known prime minister Johan Sverdrup
1775 Carlota Joaquina of Spain a Queen consort of Portugal as wife of John VI, Infant of Spain, Infant consort of Portugal, Princess consort of Brazil, Princess regent consort of Portugal and Queen consort of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves. She was the eldest daughter of King Charles IV of Spain and his wife Maria Luisa of Parma
1776 Princess Mary Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh the 11th child and fourth daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom.
1781 Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este the third son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and of his wife Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este, last member and heiress of the House of Este. For much of the Napoleonic Wars he was in command of the Austrian army
1782 Adriano Balbi born at Venice. The publication of his Prospetto politico-geografico dello stato attuale del globo obtained his election to the chair of professor of geography at the college of San Michele at Murano; in 1811–1813 he was professor of physics at the Lyceum of Fermo, and afterwards became attached to the customs office at his native city
1792 John Keble an English churchman and poet, one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement. Keble College, Oxford was named after him
1796 Giuseppe Giacinto Moris an Italian botanist known for investigations of flora native to Sardinia.
1806 William Duke of Brunswick ruling duke of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1830 until his death.
1808 Gustav Weil a German orientalist.
1809 William Swainson (lawyer) became the second, and last, Attorney-General of the Crown colony of New Zealand and instrumental in setting up the legal system of New Zealand. He was the 1st Speaker of the New Zealand Legislative Council
1813 Antonina Bludova a Russian philanthropist, salonist, memoirist and lady-in-waiting.
1814 José Balta a Peruvian soldier and politician who was president of Peru from 1868 to 1872. He was the son of John Balta Bru and Agustina Montero Casafranca
1817 Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville a French printer and bookseller who lived in Paris. He invented the earliest known sound recording device, the phonautograph, which was patented in France on 25 March 1857
1818 Fyodor Buslaev a Russian philologist, art historian, and folklorist who represented the Mythological school of comparative literature and linguistics. He was profoundly influenced by Jacob Grimm and Theodor Benfey
1822 Sherard Osborn a Royal Navy admiral and Arctic explorer.
1822 Max Maria von Weber a German civil engineer who contributed to the development of railways in Austria and Germany.
1823 Abdülmecid I the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839. His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories. Abdülmecid wanted to encourage Ottomanism among the secessionist subject nations and stop the rise of nationalist movements within the empire, but failed to succeed despite trying to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into the Ottoman society with new laws and reforms. He tried to forge alliances with the major powers of Western Europe, namely the United Kingdom and France, who fought alongside the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War against Russia. In the following Congress of Paris on 30 March 1856, the Ottoman Empire was officially included among the European family of nations. Abdülmecid's biggest achievement was the announcement and application of the Tanzimat reforms which were prepared by his father Mahmud II and effectively started the modernization of Ottoman Empire in 1839. For this achievement, one of the Imperial anthems of the Ottoman Empire, the March of Abdülmecid, was named after him
1825 Federico Errázuriz Zañartu a Chilean political figure. He served as the president of Chile between 1871 and 1876
1825 Pavel Maksutov an Imperial Russian Navy rear-admiral, prince, hero of Crimean War, 15th governor of Taganrog.
1827 Jean Antoine Zinnen a Luxembourgian composer, best known for the Luxembourgish national anthem, Ons Hémécht.
1831 Marie Bonaparte-Wyse a French author and literary hostess.