Born on April 27

1051 Fulk Bertrand of Provence the joint Count of Provence with his elder brother William IV from 1018 and with his younger brother Geoffrey I from at least 1032 if not earlier. After William's death, Fulk assumed the title of margrave, indicating headship of the dynasty. They were the sons of William II, count of Provence
1468 Frederick Jagiellon a Polish prince, Archbishop of Gniezno, Bishop of Kraków, and Primate of Poland. He was the sixth son and ninth child of Casimir IV Jagiellon, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his wife Elizabeth of Austria
1556 François Béroalde de Verville a French Renaissance novelist, poet and intellectual. He was the son of Matthieu Brouard , called "Béroalde", a professor of Agrippa d'Aubigné and Pierre de l'Estoile and a Huguenot; his mother, Marie Bletz, was the niece of the humanist and Hebrew scholar François Vatable. At the time of the Bartholomew's Day Massacre, his family fled to Geneva , but Béroalde returned to Paris in 1581. During the civil wars, Béroalde abjured Calvinism and joined the factions around Henri III of France. In 1589 he moved to Tours , and became chanoine of the cathedral chapter of Saint Gatien, where he remained until his death
1598 Michael van Langren a Dutch astronomer and cartographer. His Latinized name is Langrenus
1650 Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel queen-consort of Denmark and Norway, being the wife of King Christian V.
1654 Charles Blount (deist) an English deist and philosopher who published several anonymous essays critical of the existing English order.
1682 Claudine Guérin de Tencin a French salonist and author. She was the mother of Jean le Rond d'Alembert, philosophe and contributor to the Encyclopédie, though she left him on the steps of the Saint-Jean-le-Rond de Paris church a few days after his birth
1701 Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia from 1730 until his death.
1718 Thomas Lewis (Virginia) an Irish-American surveyor, lawyer, and a pioneer of early Virginia. He was a signatory to the Fairfax Resolves preceding the American War for Independence, and after the conflict, contributed to the settlement of western Virginia in an area that would one day become part of West Virginia
1733 Joseph Gottlieb Kölreuter a German botanist.
1737 Edward Gibbon an English historian and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788. The Decline and Fall is known for the quality and irony of its prose, its use of primary sources, and its open criticism of organised religion
1748 Pierre-Louis Ginguené a French author.
1748 Adamantios Korais a Greek humanist scholar credited with laying the foundations of Modern Greek literature and a major figure in the Greek Enlightenment. His activities paved the way for the Greek War of Independence and the emergence of a purified form of the Greek language, known as Katharevousa. Encyclopædia Britannica asserts that "his influence on the modern Greek language and culture has been compared to that of Dante on Italian and Martin Luther on German"
1755 Marc-Antoine Parseval now known as Parseval's theorem, which presaged the unitarity of the Fourier transform.
1757 Johann Christoph Röhling a German botanist and clergyman who was a native of Gundernhausen, a town near Darmstadt.
1759 Mary Wollstonecraft an eighteenth-century English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman , in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason
1759 Carl Johan Adlercreutz a Swedish general and statesman, born in Borga, Finland on family estates. Entering the Swedish army aged 13 in the Finnish Light Cavalry Brigade, he was present when Gustav III launched his coup-d’etat. He studied military theory in Stockholm
1765 Johann von Thielmann a Saxon soldier who served with Saxony, Prussia and France during the Napoleonic Wars.
1766 Vasily Pushkin a minor Russian poet best known as an uncle of the much more famous Alexander Pushkin.
1767 Andreas Romberg a German violinist and composer.
1770 Edward Codrington a British admiral, hero of the Battle of Trafalgar and the Battle of Navarino.
1771 Jean Rapp a French Army general during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
1779 Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia a grand duke of Russia and the second son of Emperor Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. He was the Tsesarevich of Russia throughout the reign of his elder brother Alexander I, but had secretly renounced his claim to the throne in 1823. For 25 days after the death of Alexander I, from 19 November /1 December 1825 to 14 December /26 December 1825 he was known as His Imperial Majesty Constantine I Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, although he never reigned and never acceded to the throne. The succession controversy became the immediate cause of the Decembrist revolt
1786 William Light a British military officer and the first Surveyor-General of the Colony of South Australia. He is famous for choosing the site of the colony's capital, Adelaide, and for designing the layout of its streets and parks - in the Adelaide city centre and the Adelaide Park Lands
1788 Charles Robert Cockerell an English architect, archaeologist, and writer.
1791 Samuel Morse an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code, and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy
1794 Achille Richard a French botanist and physician.
1796 Johann F. C. Hessel a German physician and professor of mineralogy at the University of Marburg.
1797 Jean Victoire Audouin a French naturalist, an entomologist, herpetologist, ornithologist, and malacologist.
1802 Louis Niedermeyer a composer chiefly of church music but also of a few operas, and a teacher who took over the École Choron, duly renamed École Niedermeyer, a school for the study and practice of church music, where several eminent French musicians studied including Gabriel Fauré and André Messager.
1805 Alexis Guignard comte de Saint-Priest a French diplomat, historian, and Peer of France. He was the eleventh member elected to occupy seat 4 of the Académie française in 1849
1806 Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies Queen consort of Spain and Regent of Spain.
1806 Paul Lacroix born in Paris, the son of a novelist.
1812 Friedrich von Flotow a German composer. He is chiefly remembered for his opera Martha, which was popular in the 19th century
1812 William W. Snow a United States Representative from New York.
1815 Alexandre Martin a French socialist statesman of the French Second Republic. He was the first member of the industrial working class to be in French government
1820 Herbert Spencer an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
1822 Ulysses S. Grant the 18th President of the United States. In 1865, as commanding general, Grant led the Union Armies to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War. He then implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with President Andrew Johnson. Twice elected president, Grant led the Radical Republicans in their effort to remove the vestiges of Confederate nationalism and slavery, protect African-American citizenship, and defeat the Ku Klux Klan
1827 Mary Ward (scientist) an Anglo-Irish amateur scientist who was killed when she fell under the wheels of an experimental steam car built by her cousins. As the event occurred in 1869, she is the world's first known fatal motor vehicle accident victim
1827 Nikolay Alexeyevich Orlov a Russian diplomat. He was the Ambassador of Russia to Belgium from July 3, 1859 to December 13, 1869. From December 13, 1869 to May 2, 1870 he was the Ambassador of the Russian Empire to the Austro-Hungarian Empire
1827 Zénobe Gramme a Belgian electrical engineer. He was born at Jehay-Bodegnée on 4 April 1826, the sixth child of Mathieu-Joseph Gramme, and died at Bois-Colombes on 20 January 1901. He invented the Gramme machine, a type of direct current dynamo capable of generating smoother and much higher voltages than the dynamos known to that point
1837 Paul Gordan a German mathematician, a student of Carl Jacobi at the University of Königsberg before obtaining his Ph.D. at the University of Breslau , and a professor at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
1840 Edward Whymper an English mountaineer, explorer, illustrator, and author best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865; four members of his party were killed during the descent. Whymper also made important first ascents on the Mont Blanc massif and in the Pennine Alps, South America, and the Canadian Rockies. His exploration of Greenland contributed an important advance to Arctic exploration. Whymper wrote several books on mountaineering, including Scrambles Amongst the Alps
1841 Friedrich Gumpert a German horn player and teacher.
1844 Albert von Keller a German historical and genre painter.
1845 Friedrich von Hefner-Alteneck a German electrical engineer and one of the closest aides of Werner von Siemens. He is largely remembered for the invention of the Hefner lamp, which provided the measure of luminous intensity used in Germany, Austria and Scandinavia from 1890 to 1942. The measure was called the Hefnerkerze. The Hefnerkerze was superseded in the 1940s by the modern SI unit, the candela
1848 Otto of Bavaria King of Bavaria from 1886 to 1913. He was the son of Maximilian II and his wife, Marie of Prussia, and younger brother of Ludwig King Otto of Bavaria is not to be confused with King Otto of Greece, who was his uncle and godfather
1850 Hans Hartwig von Beseler a German Colonel General.
1853 Jules Lemaître a French critic and dramatist.
1855 William Ayerst Ingram a painter and member of the Newlyn School. He did notable Landscape art and Marine art. In 1906 he joined the Royal Institute of Oil Painters and in 1907 he joined the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours