Born on April 30

1002 Eckard I Margrave of Meissen Margrave of Meissen from 985 until his death, the first margrave of the Ekkehardinger family that dominated Meissen until the extinction of the line in 1046.
1139 Ranulf II Count of Alife the count of Alife and Caiazzo, and for a contested period, Duke of Apulia. He was a member of the Norman Drengot clan which ruled Aversa and Capua for most of the century between 1050 and 1150. As the third Ranulf in his family he is sometimes called Ranulf III. Ranulf's wife, Matilda, was the sister of Roger II of Sicily
1245 Philip III of France a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1270 to 1285.
1310 Casimir III the Great the last King of Poland from the Piast dynasty, the son of King Władysław I and Duchess Hedwig of Kalisz.
1331 Gaston III Count of Foix the 11th count of Foix, and viscount of Béarn. Officially, he was Gaston III of Foix and Gaston X of Béarn
1425 William III Landgrave of Thuringia landgrave of Thuringia and claimant duke of Luxemburg. He is actually the second William to rule Thuringia, and in Luxembourg; he was the third Margrave of Meissen named William
1504 Francesco Primaticcio an Italian Mannerist painter, architect and sculptor who spent most of his career in France.
1539 Archduchess Barbara of Austria born in Vienna to Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. From 1547, in Innsbruck with her sisters Magdalena, Margareta, Helena and Johanna, she received a deeply religious upbringing
1553 Louise of Lorraine a member of the House of Lorraine who became Queen consort of France from 1575 until 1589. Born in Nomeny in the Duchy of Bar, she was the daughter of Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur, and Margaret of Egmont
1558 Mikołaj Oleśnicki the younger a Polish nobleman and latterly voivode of Lublin. He was son of Jan Oleśnicki, lord of Chmielnik in the voivodie of Sandomir His uncle was Lord Mikołaj Oleśnicki the elder a Polish Calvinist nobleman who established the first Protestant academy in Poland at Pińczów in 1550, and his aunt Zofia Oleśnicka was the first notable Polish woman poet
1623 François de Laval the first Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec, appointed when he was 36 years old by Pope Alexander VII.
1642 Christian Weise a German writer, dramatist, poet, pedagogue and librarian of the Baroque era. He produced a large number of dramatic works, noted for their social criticism and idiomatic style. In the 1670s he started a fashion for German "political novels". He has also been credited with the invention of the mathematical Euler diagram, though this is uncertain
1651 Jean-Baptiste de La Salle a French priest, educational reformer, and founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools. He is a saint of the Roman Catholic church and the patron saint of teachers
1662 Mary II of England joint Sovereign of England, Scotland, and Ireland with her husband , William III and II, from 1689 until her death. William and Mary, both Protestants, became king and queen regnant, respectively, following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII. William became sole ruler upon her death in 1694. Popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of "William and Mary"
1664 François Louis Prince of Conti Prince de Conti, succeeding his brother Louis Armand in 1685. Until this date he used the title of Prince of La Roche-sur-Yon. He was son of Armand de Bourbon and Anne Marie Martinozzi, herself a niece of Cardinal Mazarin. He is the most famous member of the Conti family, a cadet branch of the Princes of Condé. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a prince du sang
1700 Charles Frederick Duke of Holstein-Gottorp the son of Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp and his consort, Hedvig Sophia, daughter of King Charles XI of Sweden. He became reigning duke in infancy, upon his father's death in 1702, and all his life was a legitimate claimant to the throne of Sweden, as pro forma heir to Charles XII. Father of Peter III of Russia, he was a patrilineal ancestor of all Russian emperors after Catherine II
1709 Christian Gottlieb Ludwig a German physician and botanist born in Brzeg, Silesia. He was the father of Christian Ludwig , a physician/scientist known for his translations of Joseph Priestley's scientific experiments
1710 Johann Kaspar Basselet von La Rosée a leading Bavarian general.
1717 David de Gorter a Dutch physician and botanist.
1723 Mathurin Jacques Brisson a French zoologist and natural philosopher.
1735 Karl Gustav von Löwenwolde a Russian diplomat and military commander.
1758 Emmanuel Vitale a Maltese notary, commander and statesman. During the Siege of Malta , he commanded 10,000 irregular Maltese soldiers
1760 Joseph Souham a French general who fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was born at Lubersac and died at Versailles. After long service in the French Royal Army, he was elected to lead a volunteer battalion in 1792 during the French Revolution. He was promoted to general of division in September 1793 after playing a prominent role in the defense of Dunkirk. In May 1794 with his commander absent, he took temporary command of the Army of the North and defeated the Coalition army at Tourcoing. He led the covering forces at the Siege of Ypres and participated in the successful invasion of the Dutch Republic. He spent many years in occupation duties in Holland and then his career suffered because of his association with Pichegru and Moreau. Starting in 1809 he was employed in Spain during the Peninsular War, winning the Battle of Vich where he was wounded. In army command again, he forced Wellington's army to retreat at Tordesillas in 1812. The following year he led a division at Lützen and a corps at Leipzig. He remained loyal to the Bourbons during the Hundred Days
1767 Friedrich Ancillon a Prussian historian and statesman.
1770 David Thompson (explorer) a British-Canadian fur trader, surveyor, and map-maker, known to some native peoples as "Koo-Koo-Sint" or "the Stargazer." Over his career he mapped over 3.9 million square kilometers of North America and for this has been described as the "greatest land geographer who ever lived.".
1773 Johann Karl Burckhardt a German-born astronomer and mathematician who later became a naturalized French citizen. He is remembered in particular for his work in fundamental astronomy, and for his lunar theory, which was in widespread use for the construction of navigational ephemerides of the Moon for much of the first half of the nineteenth century
1773 Jean-Marie Dorsenne a French military commander of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He eventually became one of the senior commanders in the Imperial Guard
1775 Guillaume Dode de la Brunerie a Marshal of France. On February 12, 1812, he married the daughter of Marshal Pérignon, Agathe-Virginie
1777 Carl Friedrich Gauss a German mathematician, who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy, Matrix theory, and optics.
1781 George Washington Parke Custis the step-grandson and adopted son of United States President George Washington, and father-in-law of Robert Lee. He spent his large inherited fortune building Arlington House on the Potomac opposite Washington D.C. After his death, the estate was left to the Lee family, but was confiscated after the outbreak of the American Civil War. Later, the confiscation was rescinded, and Congress bought the estate back from the family. The house is now the Robert Lee Memorial and the plantation became Arlington National Cemetery and Fort Myer. He also wrote historical plays about Virginia, a number of patriotic addresses, and a memoir of life in the Washington household
1796 Adolphe Crémieux a French-Jewish lawyer and statesman and staunch defender of the human rights of the Jews of France.
1803 Albrecht von Roon a Prussian soldier and statesman. As Minister of War from 1859 to 1873, Roon, along with Otto von Bismarck and Helmuth von Moltke, was a dominating figure in Prussia's government during the key decade of the 1860s, when a series of successful wars against Denmark, Austria and France led to German unification under Prussia's leadership. A conservative and reactionary supporter of the monarchy, he was an avid modernizer who worked to improve the efficiency of the army
1804 Richard Redgrave an English artist.
1812 Kaspar Hauser a German youth who claimed to have grown up in the total isolation of a darkened cell. Hauser's claims, and his subsequent death by stabbing, sparked much debate and controversy. Theories propounded at the time linked him with the grand ducal House of Baden. These have long since been rejected by historians
1819 Hermann Settegast a German agronomist. He established the first agricultural school in Germany that was independent of a university and is considered to be one of the 19th century's foremost experts on animal breeding
1823 George Campbell 8th Duke of Argyll a Scottish peer and Liberal politician as well as a writer on science, religion, and the politics of the 19th century.
1823 Paul Janet a French philosopher and writer.
1829 Ferdinand von Hochstetter a German geologist.
1830 Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi the ruler of Kandahar and Baluchistan. He is often given credit for developing the family name "Tarzi", which would go on to play critical roles in the history of Afghanistan. Sardar Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi was a soldier, poet and a leader in Afghanistan
1834 John Lubbock 1st Baron Avebury a banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath.
1835 Franz Defregger an Austrian artist known mostly for his genre and history paintings.
1839 Yoshitoshi a Japanese artist.
1839 Floriano Peixoto a Brazilian soldier and politician, a veteran of the Paraguayan War, and the second president of Brazil.
1840 Edward Hobart Seymour a Royal Navy officer who became Commander-in-Chief, China Station.
1842 Charles S. Fairchild a New York businessman and politician.
1844 Richard Hofmann (composer) a German composer and music teacher who worked in Leipzig.
1848 Eugène Simon a French naturalist who worked particularly on insects and spiders, but also on birds and plants. His many taxonomic contributions include categorizing and naming many spiders, as well as creating genera such as Anelosimus, Psellocoptus and Phlogius. Simon's works are in the public domain in both France and the United States
1850 Ieronim Yasinsky a Russian novelist, poet, literary critic and essayist, who also published his works under several pseudonyms: Maxim Belinsky, Nezavisimy and M.Tchunosov.
1850 George Gibb a Scottish transport administrator who served as the general manager of the North Eastern Railway, managing director of the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, and as chairman of the former British Road Board.
1857 Walter Simon (philanthropist) a German banker, councillor and philanthropist active in Königsberg and Tübingen.