Born on April 4

188 Caracalla the popular nickname of Antoninus , Roman emperor of Punic and Syrian descent from 198 to 217. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. Caracalla is remembered as one of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Empire
1139 Euphemia of Kiev Queen Consort of Hungary. Euphemia was the daughter of Grand Prince Vladimir II of Kiev and his second wife whose name and ancestry are unknown. She was married to King Coloman of Hungary around 1112. However, her husband, who had been suffering from a serious disease, caught her in adultery and immediately sent her back to Kiev. Euphemia gave birth to her son, Boris , in her father's court, but the son was never recognised by King Coloman
1406 Ralph Neville 2nd Earl of Westmorland an English peer.
1492 Ambrosius Blarer an influential reformer in southern Germany and north-eastern Switzerland.
1557 Lew Sapieha a noble and statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He became Great Secretary of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1580, Great Clerk of the Grand Duchy in 1581, Court Chancellor of the GDL in 1585, Grand Chancellor of the GDL from 1589 until 1623, Voivode of Vilnius in 1621, Great Lithuanian Hetman in 1623 and starost of Slonim, Brest and Mogilev. He was of Ruthenian ethnicity, however, modern Belarusian sources interpret his Ruthenian heritage as Belarusian
1572 William Strachey an English writer whose works are among the primary sources for the early history of the English colonisation of North America. He is best remembered today as the eye-witness reporter of the 1609 shipwreck on the uninhabited island of Bermuda of the colonial ship Sea Venture, which was caught in a hurricane while sailing to Virginia. The survivors eventually reached Virginia after building two small ships during the ten months they spent on the island. His account of the incident and of the Virginia colony is thought by most Shakespearean scholars to have been a source for Shakespeare’s play The Tempest
1583 Franciscus Quaresmius an Italian writer and Orientalist.
1588 Padovanino an Italian painter of the late-Mannerist and early-Baroque Venetian school, best known for having mentored Pietro Liberi, Giulio Carpioni, and Bartolommeo Scaligero. He was the son of Dario Varotari the Elder and the brother of Chiara Varotari, who accompanied him on his travels and assisted with his work
1593 Edward Nicholas an English office holder and politician who served as Secretary of State to Charles I and Charles He also sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1629. He served as secretary to Edward la Zouche and the Duke of Buckingham and became a clerk of the Privy Council. He supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War and accompanied the court into exile, before assuming the post of Secretary of State on the Restoration
1614 Henry II Duke of Guise the second son of Charles, Duke of Guise and Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse.
1646 Antoine Galland a French orientalist and archaeologist, most famous as the first European translator of One Thousand and One Nights which he called Les mille et une nuits. His version of the tales appeared in twelve volumes between 1704 and 1717 and exerted a huge influence on subsequent European literature and attitudes to the Islamic world
1648 Grinling Gibbons a Dutch-British sculptor and wood carver known for his work in England, including St Paul's Cathedral, Blenheim Palace and Hampton Court Palace. He was born and educated in Holland of English parents, his father being a merchant. He is widely regarded as the finest wood carver working in England, and the only one whose name is widely known among the general public. Most of his work is in lime wood, especially decorative Baroque garlands made up of still-life elements at about life size, made to frame mirrors and decorate the walls of churches and palaces, but he also produced furniture and small relief plaques with figurative scenes. He also worked in stone, mostly for churches. By the time he was established he led a large workshop, and the extent to which his personal hand appears in later work varies
1675 Francis Charteris (rake) a Scottish soldier and adventurer who earned a substantial sum of money through gambling and the South Sea Bubble. He was convicted of raping a servant in 1730 and sentenced to death, but was subsequently pardoned, before dying of natural causes shortly afterwards
1676 Giuseppe Maria Orlandini an Italian baroque composer particularly known for his more than 40 operas and intermezzos. Highly regarded by music historians of his day like Francesco Saverio Quadrio, Jean-Benjamin de La Borde and Charles Burney, Orlandini, along with Vivaldi, is considered one of the major creators of the new style of opera that dominated the second decade of the 18th century
1688 Joseph-Nicolas Delisle a French astronomer and cartographer.
1701 Joseph Haines a 17th-century actor, singer, dancer, guitar player, fortune teller, and author.
1707 Hans Karl von Winterfeldt born at Vanselow Castle in Swedish Pomerania, he was Lord of several estates. His education was imperfect, and in later life he always regretted his want of familiarity with the French language. He entered the cuirassier regiment of his uncle, Major-General von Winterfeld until 1720, and was promoted cornet after two years service. But he was fortunate enough, by his stature and soldierly bearing, to attract the notice of Frederick William I, who transferred him to the so-called giant regiment of grenadiers as a lieutenant. Before long he became a personal aide-de-camp to the king, and in 1732 he was sent with a party of selected non-commissioned officers to assist in the organization of the Russian army
1718 Benjamin Kennicott an English churchman and Hebrew scholar.
1725 Sir William Green 1st Baronet an officer in the British Army. After receiving a private education in Aberdeen, Scotland and a military education at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, England, he was appointed as a practitioner engineer in 1743. Green served on the European continent until 1752, after which he was in Canada. There, he continued to advance through both the ordinary military and engineering ranks. Following his return to England, Green was named senior engineer for Gibraltar about 1761, and the next year promoted to lieutenant colonel. He was promoted to chief engineer for Gibraltar in 1770, and designed and executed a number of military works on the Rock. In 1772, his idea of a regiment of military artificers, to replace the civilian mechanics who had formerly constructed military works, came to fruition in the form of the Soldier Artificer Company, the predecessor of the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners. Their works included the King's Bastion, which Green designed. Promoted to colonel in 1777, he served as chief engineer throughout the Great Siege of Gibraltar. During the siege, he was promoted to brigadier general, then major general. He returned to England in 1783; three years later a baronetcy was created for him. He was appointed chief engineer of Great Britain in 1786. His promotions included that to lieutenant general in 1793 and full general in 1798. Following his retirement in 1802, he settled in Plumstead, Kent
1752 Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli an Italian composer, chiefly of opera.
1758 Pierre-Paul Prud'hon a French Romantic painter and draughtsman best known for his allegorical paintings and portraits.
1759 Christian Leberecht Vogel a German painter, draughtsman and writer on art theory. His pupils included Louise Seidler, and he was the father of the court painter and art professor Carl Christian Vogel
1760 Juan Manuel Olivares a Venezuelan composer from the Colonial era.
1762 Stephen Storace an English composer. His sister was the famous opera singer Nancy Storace. He was born in London in the Parish of St Marylebone to an English mother and Italian father. Relatively little is known through direct records of his life, and most details are known second-hand through the memoirs of his contemporaries Michael Kelly, the actor John Bannister, and the oboist William Thomas Parke
1762 Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen the elder daughter of Karl Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Usingen, and wife of Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel.
1772 Nachman of Breslov the founder of the Breslov Hasidic movement.
1773 Étienne Maurice Gérard a French general and statesman. He served under a succession of French governments including the ancien regime monarchy, the Revolutionary governments, the Restorations, the July Monarchy, the First and Second Republics, and the First Empire , becoming Prime Minister briefly in 1834
1780 Edward Hicks an American folk painter and distinguished minister of the Society of Friends. He became a Quaker icon because of his paintings
1785 Bettina von Arnim a German writer and novelist.
1792 Thaddeus Stevens a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and one of the leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s. A fierce opponent of slavery and discrimination against African-Americans, Stevens sought to secure their rights during Reconstruction, in opposition to President Andrew Johnson. As chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee during the American Civil War, he played a major part in the war's financing
1792 Thomas John Hussey an English clergyman and astronomer.
1793 Casimir Delavigne a French poet and dramatist.
1794 Sabin Berthelot a French naturalist and ethnologist. He was resident on the Canary Islands for part of his life, and co-authored L'Histoire Naturelle des Îles Canaries with Philip Barker Webb
1795 Joseph Böhm a violinist and a director of the Vienna Conservatory.
1800 Tokugawa Nariaki a prominent Japanese daimyo who ruled the Mito domain and contributed to the rise of nationalism and the Meiji restoration.
1802 Dorothea Dix an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses
1804 Joseph Fischhof a Czech-Austrian pianist, composer and professor at the Vienna Conservatory of Music, belonging to the Romantic school.
1808 Ronald Campbell Gunn a South African-born Australian botanist and politician.
1809 Benjamin Peirce an American mathematician who taught at Harvard University for approximately 50 years. He made contributions to celestial mechanics, statistics, number theory, algebra, and the philosophy of mathematics
1810 James Freeman Clarke an American theologian and author.
1818 Thomas Mayne Reid a Scots-Irish American novelist. "Captain" Reid wrote many adventure novels akin to those written by Frederick Marryat and Robert Louis Stevenson. He was a great admirer of Lord Byron. These novels contain action that takes place primarily in untamed settings: the American West, Mexico, South Africa, the Himalayas, and Jamaica
1818 Carl Steffeck a German painter and graphic artist. He was especially well known for his paintings of horses and dogs
1819 Maria II of Portugal Queen regnant of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1826 to 1828 and again from 1834 to 1853. She was a member of the House of Braganza
1821 Linus Yale Jr. an American mechanical engineer and manufacturer, best known for his inventions of locks, especially the cylinder lock. His basic lock design is still widely distributed in today’s society, and constitute a majority of personal locks and safes. Linus Yale, was born in Salisbury, New York. Yale’s father, Linus Yale, opened a lock shop in the 1840s in Newport, New York, specializing in bank locks. Yale soon joined his father in his business and introduced some revolutionary locks that utilized permutations and cylinders. He later founded a company with Henry Robinson Towne called the Yale Lock Manufacturing Company in the South End section of Stamford, Connecticut. Throughout his career in lock manufacturing, Yale acquired numerous patents for his inventions and received widespread acclaim from clients regarding his products
1823 David Grimm (architect) a Russian architect, educator and historian of art of Byzantine Empire, Georgia and Armenia. Grimm belonged to the second generation of Russian neo-Byzantine architects and was the author of orthodox cathedrals in Tbilisi, Chersonesos and smaller churches in Russia and Western Europe. Grimm was a long-term professor at the Imperial Academy of Arts and chaired its Department of Architecture in 1887-1892
1823 Carl Wilhelm Siemens a German-born engineer who for most of his life worked in Britain and later became a British subject.
1825 Đuro Daničić a Serbian and Croatian philologist, translator, linguistic historian and lexicographer. He was a prolific scholar at the Belgrade Lyceum
1829 Bohuslav Count Chotek of Chotkow and Wognin a Bohemian noble and was a diplomat in the service of Austria-Hungary. He was the father of Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg the morganatic wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
1832 Werner Munzinger a Swiss administrator and explorer of the Horn of Africa.
1834 Duchess Helene in Bavaria a Bavarian princess and, through marriage, temporarily the head of the Thurn and Taxis family.