Born on April 5

1170 Isabella of Hainault Queen of France as the first wife of King Philip II.
1288 Emperor Go-Fushimi the 93rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1298 to 1301
1315 James III of Majorca the King of Majorca from 1324 to 1344. He was the last independent king of Majorca of the Kingdom of Aragon
1472 Bianca Maria Sforza Holy Roman Empress as the second wife of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the eldest legitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, by his second wife, Bona of Savoy
1498 Giovanni dalle Bande Nere an Italian condottiero.
1508 Ercole II d'Este Duke of Ferrara Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio from 1534 to 1559. He was the eldest son of Alfonso I d'Este and Lucrezia Borgia
1523 Blaise de Vigenère a French diplomat, cryptographer, translator and alchemist.
1539 George Frederick Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach Margrave of Ansbach and Bayreuth, as well as Regent of Prussia. He was the son of George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and a member of the House of Hohenzollern. He married firstly, in 1559, Elisabeth of Brandenburg-Küstrin. He married secondly, in 1579, Sophie of Brunswick-Lüneburg , daughter of William of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Dorothea of Denmark
1568 Pope Urban VIII Pope from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. He was the last pope to expand the papal territory by force of arms, and was a prominent patron of the arts and reformer of Church missions
1588 Thomas Hobbes an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established social contract theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy
1591 Frederick Ulrich Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1613 until his death.
1595 John Wilson (composer) an English composer, lutenist and teacher. Born in Faversham, Kent, he moved to London by 1614, where he succeeded Robert Johnson as principal composer for the King's Men, and entered the King's Musick in 1635 as a lutenist. He received the degree of D.Mus from Oxford in 1644, and he was professor of music there from 1656 to 1661. Following the Restoration, he joined the Chapel Royal in 1662. He died at Westminster
1604 Charles IV Duke of Lorraine Duke of Lorraine from 1624 to 1634, when he abdicated under French pressure in favor of his younger brother, Nicholas Francis, and again from 1661 until 1675.
1606 Nicolas Perrot d'Ablancourt a French translator of the Greek and Latin classics into French and a member of the Académie française.
1622 Vincenzo Viviani an Italian mathematician and scientist. He was a pupil of Torricelli and a disciple of Galileo
1626 Jan van Kessel the Elder a Flemish painter of still lifes and Jan Brueghel the Elder's grandson.
1649 Elihu Yale a Welsh merchant and philanthropist, Governor of the East India Company settlement in Fort George, at Madras and a benefactor of the Collegiate School in the Colony of Connecticut, which in 1718 was renamed Yale College in his honor.
1656 Nikita Demidov a Russian industrialist who founded the Demidov industrial dynasty.
1674 Margravine Elisabeth Sophie of Brandenburg (1674–1748) a Duchess consort of Courland, Margravine consort of Brandenburg-Bayreuth and Duchess consort of Saxe-Meiningen. She was married to Duke Frederick Casimir Kettler of Courland, Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, and Ernst Ludwig I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. She was joint regent in Courland during the minority of her son from 1698 until 1701
1691 Louis VIII Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1739 to 1768. He was the son of Ernest Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Margravine Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach
1692 Adrienne Lecouvreur a French actress, considered by many as the greatest of her time. Born in Damery, she first appeared professionally on the stage in Lille. After her Paris debut at the Comédie-Française in 1717, she was immensely popular with the public. Together with Michel Baron, she was credited for having developed a more natural, less stylized, type of acting
1719 Axel von Fersen the Elder a Swedish statesman and soldier.
1727 Pasquale Anfossi an Italian opera composer. Born in Taggia, Liguria, he studied with Niccolò Piccinni and Antonio Sacchini, and worked mainly in London, Venice and Rome
1729 Frederick Charles Ferdinand Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg a member of the House of Guelph. he was a Danish field marshal and also the last Duke of Brunswick-Bevern.
1732 Jean-Honoré Fragonard a French painter and printmaker whose late Rococo manner was distinguished by remarkable facility, exuberance, and hedonism. One of the most prolific artists active in the last decades of the Ancien Régime, Fragonard produced more than 550 paintings , of which only five are dated. Among his most popular works are genre paintings conveying an atmosphere of intimacy and veiled eroticism
1752 Sébastien Érard a French instrument maker of German origin who specialised in the production of pianos and harps, developing the capacities of both instruments and pioneering the modern piano.
1761 Sybil Ludington famous for her night ride on April 26, 1777 to alert American colonial forces to the approach of the British. Her action was similar to that performed by Paul Revere, though she rode more than twice the distance of Revere and was only 16 years old at the time of her action. She was an aunt of Harrison Ludington, the Governor of Wisconsin
1769 Sir Thomas Hardy 1st Baronet a Royal Navy officer. He took part in the Battle of Cape St Vincent in February 1797, the Battle of the Nile in August 1798 and the Battle of Copenhagen in April 1801 during the French Revolutionary Wars. He served as flag captain to Admiral Lord Nelson, and commanded HMS Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars. Nelson was shot as he paced the decks with Hardy, and as he lay dying, Nelson's famous remark of "Kiss me, Hardy" was directed at him. Hardy went on to become First Naval Lord in November 1830 and in that capacity refused to become a Member of Parliament and encouraged the introduction of steam warships
1773 Duchess Therese of Mecklenburg-Strelitz a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and a Duchess of Mecklenburg. Through her marriage to Karl Alexander, 5th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Therese was also a member of the House of Thurn and Taxis
1777 Marie Jules César Savigny a French zoologist.
1782 Wincenty Krasiński a Polish nobleman , political activist and military leader.
1784 Louis Spohr a German composer, violinist and conductor. Highly regarded during his lifetime, Spohr composed ten symphonies, ten operas, eighteen violin concerti, four clarinet concerti, four oratorios and various works for small ensemble, chamber music and art songs. Spohr was the inventor of both the violin chinrest and the orchestral rehearsal mark. His output occupies a pivotal position between Classicism and Romanticism, but fell into obscurity following his death, when his music was rarely heard. The late 20th century saw a revival of interest in his oeuvre, especially in Europe
1786 Pavel Schilling a diplomat of Baltic German origin employed in the service of Russia in Germany, and who built a pioneering electrical telegraph. It consisted of a single needle system which used a telegraph code to indicate the characters in a message
1788 Franz Pforr a painter of the German Nazarene movement.
1793 Felix de Muelenaere a Belgian Roman Catholic politician.
1795 Henry Havelock particularly associated with India and his recapture of Cawnpore from rebels during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
1799 Jacques Denys Choisy a Swiss Protestant clergyman and botanist.
1801 Vincenzo Gioberti an Italian philosopher, publicist and politician.
1804 Matthias Jakob Schleiden a German botanist and co-founder of the cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.
1808 Therese Elssler a dancer.
1809 Karl Felix Halm a German classical scholar and critic.
1810 Sir Henry Rawlinson 1st Baronet Maj.-Gen. Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, 1st Baronet GCB was a British East India Company army officer, politician and Orientalist, sometimes described as the Father of Assyriology. Rawlinson was one of the most important figures arguing that Britain must check Russian ambitions in South Asia. He was a strong advocate of the forward policy in Afghanistan, and counselled the retention of Kandahar. He argued that Tsarist Russia would attack and absorb Khokand, Bokhara and Khiva and warned they would invade Persia and Afghanistan as springboards to British India
1811 Jules Dupré a French painter, one of the chief members of the Barbizon school of landscape painters. If Corot stands for the lyric and Rousseau for the epic aspect of the poetry of nature, Dupré is the exponent of his tragic and dramatic aspects
1812 Vakhtang Orbeliani a Georgian Romanticist poet and soldier in the Imperial Russian service, of the noble House of Orbeliani.
1814 Felix Lichnowsky a son of the historian Eduard Lichnowsky who had written a history of the Habsburg family.
1816 Samuel Freeman Miller an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court who served from 1862 to 1890. He was a physician and lawyer
1819 Heinrich Christian Schwan a German Lutheran pastor, served as a missionary in Brazil, a pastor in Cleveland, Ohio, and Central District President and General President in the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. Schwan is credited with being the first pastor to erect a Christmas tree in an American church sanctuary and is also known for the Missouri Synod's first exposition of Martin Luther's Small Catechism
1822 Émile Louis Victor de Laveleye a Belgian economist. He was one of the co-founders of the Institut de Droit International in 1873
1823 Nikolai Berg a Russian poet, journalist, translator and historian.
1824 Ladislav Pejačević a Croatian aristocrat, politician and statesman, a member of the Pejačević noble family, remarkable and influential in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the Ban of Croatia between 1880 and 1883