Born on August 1

10 Claudius Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37
126 Pertinax Roman Emperor for three months in 193. He is known as the first emperor of the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. A high-ranking military and Senatorial figure, he tried to restore discipline in the Praetorian Guards, whereupon they rebelled and killed him. Upon his death he was succeeded by Didius Julianus, whose reign was similarly short
845 Sugawara no Michizane a scholar, poet, and politician of the Heian Period of Japan. He is regarded as an excellent poet, particularly in Chinese poetry, and is today revered as the god of learning, Tenman-Tenjin
873 Thachulf Duke of Thuringia the Duke of Thuringia from 849 until his death. He held the titles of comes and dux and he ruled over a marca. He may have been the son of Hadulf, son of Thankulf
1068 Emperor Taizu of Jin Emperor of Jin from January 28, 1115 to September 19, 1123. He was the chieftain of the Jurchen Wanyan tribe, founder and first emperor of the Jin Dynasty. He was the younger brother of Wanyan Wuyashu. Aguda was given the temple name Taizu
1098 Adhemar of Le Puy bishop of Puy-en-Velay from before 1087.
1182 Pietro da Pavia bishop-elect of Meaux , Cardinal-Priest of Crisogono and finally Cardinal-Bishop of Tusculum. He was papal legate, together with Henri de Marsiac, in southern France against Cathars and Waldenses 1174–1178. He participated in the Third Lateran Council in 1179. Then he was sent again as papal legate to southern France and to Germany. He subscribed the papal bulls issued between October 14, 1173 and July 14, 1182. In 1180 he was elected archbishop of Bourges but it seems that he did not assume that post
1227 Shimazu Tadahisa the founder of the Shimazu samurai clan.
1313 Emperor Kōgon the first of the Ashikaga Pretenders during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1332 through 1334
1377 Emperor Go-Komatsu the 100th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He is officially considered to have been a pretender from May 24, 1382 to October 21, 1392, when Emperor Go-Kameyama abdicated. He is understood to have been a legitimate emperor from that date until October 5, 1412. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1392 through 1412
1425 Frederick I Elector Palatine a Count Palatine of the Rhine and Elector Palatine from the House of Wittelsbach in 1451 - 1476.
1504 Dorothea of Denmark Duchess of Prussia a Danish princess and Duchess of Prussia. She was the daughter of King Frederick I of Denmark and Anna of Brandenburg. She was married to Duke Albert, Duke of Prussia
1520 Sigismund II Augustus King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. Married three times, the last of the Jagiellons remained childless, and through the Union of Lublin introduced an elective monarchy
1545 Andrew Melville a Scottish scholar, theologian and religious reformer. His fame encouraged scholars from the European Continent to study at Glasgow and Andrews
1555 Edward Kelley an ambiguous figure in English Renaissance occultism and self-declared spirit medium who worked with John Dee in his magical investigations. Besides the professed ability to summon spirits or angels in a "shew-stone" or mirror, which John Dee so valued, Kelley also claimed to possess the secret of transmuting base metals into gold, the goal of alchemy, as well as the supposed Philosopher's Stone itself
1579 Luis Vélez de Guevara a Spanish dramatist and novelist. He was born at Écija and was of Jewish converso descent. After graduating as a sizar at the University of Osuna in 1596, he joined the household of Rodrigo de Castro, Cardinal-Archbishop of Seville, and celebrated the marriage of Philip II in a poem signed Vélez de Santander, a name which he continued to use till some years later
1592 François le Métel de Boisrobert a French poet, playwright, and courtier.
1626 Sabbatai Zevi a Sephardic Rabbi and kabbalist who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah. He was the founder of the Jewish Sabbatean movement
1627 Princess Louise of Savoy a Savoyard Princess by birth. She was the mother of Louis, Margrave of Baden-Baden, the famous chief commander of the Imperial army
1630 Thomas Clifford 1st Baron Clifford of Chudleigh an English statesman and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1672 when he was created Baron Clifford.
1659 Sebastiano Ricci an Italian painter of the late Baroque school of Venice. About the same age as Piazzetta, and an elder contemporary of Tiepolo, he represents a late version of the vigorous and luminous Cortonesque style of grand manner fresco painting
1686 Benedetto Marcello an Italian composer, writer, advocate, magistrate, and teacher.
1703 Lorenzo Ricci an Italian Jesuit, elected the 18th Superior General of the Society of Jesus. He was also the last before the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773
1713 Charles I Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel ruling as Prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1735 until his death.
1714 Richard Wilson (painter) an influential British landscape painter, who worked in Britain and Italy. With George Lambert he is recognised as a pioneer in British art of landscape for its own sake and was described in the Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales as the "most distinguished painter Wales has ever produced and the first to appreciate the aesthetic possibilities of his country". In December 1768 Wilson became one of the founder-members of the Royal Academy
1738 Jacques François Dugommier a French general.
1744 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck a French naturalist. He was a soldier, biologist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. He gave the term biology a broader meaning by coining the term for special sciences, chemistry, meteorology, geology, and botany-zoology
1754 Seraphim of Sarov one of the most renowned Russian monks and mystics in the Eastern Orthodox Church. He is generally considered the greatest of the 19th century startsy. Seraphim extended the monastic teachings of contemplation, theoria and self-denial to the layperson. He taught that the purpose of the Christian life was to acquire the Holy Spirit. Perhaps his most popular quotation amongst Orthodox believers is "Acquire a peaceful spirit, and thousands around you will be saved."
1755 Antonio Capuzzi an Italian violinist and composer.
1756 Pierre Louis Prieur a French lawyer elected to the Estates-General of 1789. During the French Revolution he served as a deputy to the National Convention and held membership in the Committee of Public Safety
1764 Stepan Malygin a Russian Arctic explorer.
1768 Karl Ludwig von Haller a Swiss jurist. He was the author of Restauration der Staatswissenschaften , a book which Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel strongly criticized in Elements of the Philosophy of Right. This work, which was burnt during the Wartburg festival, opposed nationalism and the bureaucracy of extensive government
1770 William Clark (explorer) an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor. A native of Virginia, he grew up in prestatehood Kentucky before later settling in what became the state of Missouri. Clark was a planter and slaveholder
1771 Johann Philipp Achilles Leisler a German physician and naturalist.
1776 Jean Corbineau a French cavalry general of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. His two brothers Claude and Hercule also fought in both these wars and together the three men were known as "les trois Horaces"
1776 Archibald Acheson 2nd Earl of Gosford a British politician who served as Lieutenant-Governor of Lower Canada and Governor General of British North America in the 19th century.
1779 Francis Scott Key an American lawyer, author, and amateur poet, from Georgetown, who wrote the lyrics to the United States' national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner".
1779 Lorenz Oken a German naturalist, botanist, biologist, and ornithologist. Oken was born Lorenz Okenfuss in Bohlsbach , Ortenau, Baden, and studied natural history and medicine at the universities of Freiburg and Würzburg. He went on to the University of Göttingen, where he became a Privatdozent , and shortened his name to Oken. As Lorenz Oken, he published a small work entitled Grundriss der Naturphilosophie, der Theorie der Sinne, mit der darauf gegründeten Classification der Thiere. This was the first of a series of works which established him as a leader of the movement of "Naturphilosophie" in Germany
1782 Eugène de Mazenod a French Catholic clergyman, beatified on 19 October 1975 by Pope Paul VI, and canonized on 3 December 1995 by Pope John Paul II.
1799 Countess of Ségur a French writer of Russian birth. She is best known today for her novel Les Malheurs de Sophie , intended for children
1808 Aurora Karamzina a Finnish-Swede philanthropist. Her better-known names are Princess Aurora Demidova and Aurora Karamzina, titles that were acquired after her first and second marriages, respectively
1809 William B. Travis a 19th-century American lawyer and soldier. At the age of 26, he was a lieutenant colonel in the Texas Army. He died at the Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution
1811 John Lort Stokes an officer in the Royal Navy who travelled on HMS Beagle for close to eighteen years.
1814 Maxcy Gregg a lawyer, soldier in the United States Army during the Mexican-American War, and a Confederate brigadier general during the American Civil War who was mortally wounded at the Battle of Fredericksburg and died two days later.
1815 Richard Henry Dana Jr. an American lawyer and politician from Massachusetts, a descendant of an eminent colonial family, who gained renown as the author of the American classic, the memoir Two Years Before the Mast. Both as a writer and as a lawyer, he was a champion of the downtrodden, from seamen to fugitive slaves
1817 Adolf I Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe a ruler of the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe.
1817 Richard Dadd an English painter of the Victorian era, noted for his depictions of fairies and other supernatural subjects, Orientalist scenes, and enigmatic genre scenes, rendered with obsessively minuscule detail. Most of the works for which he is best known were created while he was a patient in a psychiatric hospital
1818 Maria Mitchell an American astronomer who, in 1847, by using a telescope, discovered a comet which as a result became known as "Miss Mitchell's Comet". She won a gold medal prize for her discovery which was presented to her by King Frederick VII of Denmark - this was remarkable for a woman. On the medal was inscribed "Non Frustra Signorum Obitus Speculamur et Ortus" in Latin taken from Georgics by Virgil. Mitchell was the first American woman to work as a professional astronomer
1819 Herman Melville an American novelist, writer of short stories, and poet from the American Renaissance period. The bulk of his writings was published between 1846 and 1857. Best known for his whaling novel Moby-Dick , he is also legendary for having been forgotten during the last thirty years of his life. Melville's writing is characteristic for its allusivity. "In Melville's manipulation of his reading", scholar Stanley Williams wrote, "was a transforming power comparable to Shakespeare's"
1819 Augustus Charles Gregory an English-born Australian explorer. Between 1846 and 1858 he undertook four major expeditions. He was appointed a Member of the Queensland Legislative Council